Cross-cultural management is one of the biggest strategic processes in business organizations and companies. Essentially, there are fundamental differences in the cultural aspects that arise from such issues as language, religion, social norms, and values. Therefore, if not well managed, cross cultures can pose great challenges. There is a need to understand cultural differences and respect different cultures. In other words, cross-cultural management is crucial for supporting such processes as marketing mixing. It helps to design products and services that account for tastes and preferences of culturally diverse consumers. It plays a significant role in determining the manner in which the employees will perform.

Globalization of business functions and activities has become common in the 21st century. Notably, with the increase of globalization, the business world can now be characterized by working environments that have employees with diverse cultural backgrounds. Therefore, the effective management of cultural diversity is crucial for maintaining a competitive advantage of a business organization in global markets. Secondly, successful functioning of the organization in the global arena significantly depends on the development of effective cross cultural management models. It should be emphasized that cross cultural management ensures effective working relationships between members of different cultural backgrounds and adaptation to cultural differences. In such a way, it becomes easier for an organization to run its business on the basis of recognizing and sharing the priorities. Therefore, it is clear that cross cultural management is a crucial tool in the international human resource management in terms of training and development, recruitment, and performance management.

Cultural Intelligence Model

While describing the cultural intelligence model, MacNab and Worthley (2013) show that the model reflects the capacity of an individual to adapt to different cultures effectively. It also deals with analyzing the ability of the individual to understand interpersonal differences particularly in a business environment. The author also indicates the four elements of the cultural intelligence model. These include cognitive strategies, coping strategies, knowledge of different cultures, motivation, and development of appropriate behaviors in all cultural settings (Luo 2016, p. 20). It therefore means that the cultural intelligence model involves describing how an individual adjusts to different cultures on the basis of a faceted model of intelligence.

On the other hand, it does not imply that an individual should hold onto specific cultural values and beliefs because it eliminates the need to create a sense of belonging for all employees. As a result, it will be hard to implement training and development programs successfully if cultural diversity is not accommodated effectively. Additionally, MacNab and Worthley (2013) emphasize that people with high cultural intelligence are more likely to adapt faster and more effectively in a new cultural setting. However, the author indicates that individuals who demonstrate effectiveness in particular cross-cultural environments should not be considered as having a high cultural intelligence. Instead, judgment should be based on the outcomes of effectiveness and not on the relevant capabilities of an individual (MacNab & Worthley 2013, p. 71).

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Furthermore, the cultural intelligence model has a significant impact on international human resource management. For instance, in the course of recruitment, the management should consider individuals that demonstrate a high degree of cultural differentiation and flexibility (Crowne 2013, p. 8). In such a way, the performance of an organization will be enhanced because people from different cultures have the ability to adapt to cultural diversity. It also allows the management to implement training and development programs that are crucial for enhancing the employee motivation (Van Dyne et al. 2012, p. 296).

Notably, the concepts of cultural intelligence also improve the ability of an individual to solve problems. According to Van Dyne et al. (2012), cultural intelligence model is generated by the need to accept the practical reality of globalization in the workplace as a way of enhancing the performance of the organization. Secondly, the model focuses on the ability to grasp and reason correctly in the culturally diverse environments. Therefore, cultural intelligence is paramount for an individual to be successful at their workplace and in personal relationships in terms of ever-growing globalization (MacNab & Worthley 2013, p. 85).

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Hofstede Model

In cross-cultural management, Hofstede model is one of the most important and widely known. It is widely applied in global operating organizations during training and seminars. According to Venaik and Brewer (2013), the model creates the awareness that there are cultural differences in all global organizations. It refers to the fact that managers in the international businesses face a wide array of challenges generated by cultural differences. Therefore, these managers must understand the relevant ways in which national and business cultures differ (Awadh & Alyahya 2013, p. 168). The Hofstede cultural model is thus applied as an extensive way of understanding cultural differences to enhance training and performance management. It should be emphasized that this model is primarily based on differences in values and beliefs regarding work goals. It creates a clear link between national and business cultures as it serves as an extensive model for creating organizational culture that would facilitate a sense of belonging. With such understanding, it becomes easier to recruit new employees, and develop training programs for the existing ones improving their overall performance (Awadh & Alyahya 2013, p. 168). In addition, there are dimensions that the Hofstede model uses for enhancing cultural understanding and its impact on international human resource management. These include the expectations regarding the equal treatment of people (power distance), typical reactions to situations considered as different and risky (uncertainty) and individualism, which means the relationship between an individual and other people. Other dimensions include masculinity versus femininity and long-term orientation (Venaik & Brewer 2013, p. 475).

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Kluckhohn and Strodebeck’s Value Orientation Model

While explaining this model Jiang (2015) shows that cultural differences develop as a result of different ways of coping with the problem of cultural diversity. It thus means that this model is significant for international human resource management as a means of accessing and managing international cultures. For instance, when this model is applied for training and development, it creates a sense that workplaces should operate in a harmonized manner in order to harness forces of cultural diversity (Venaik & Brewer 2013, p. 470). As a result, it becomes less challenging for the employees to alter their personal beliefs and values to accommodate to other cultures. Secondly, the organizations should also be oriented towards overcoming the obstacles that may be presented by different cultures, and to focus on moderation and orderliness. These are the ingredients for managing the performance of the employees in a particular workplace setting (Jiang 2015, p. 452).

On the other hand, while discussing international cross-cultural management, Venaik and Brewer (2013) explain that Kluckhohn and Strodebeck’s Value Orientation Model can be applied to enhance effective management practices in different organizations. First, the model suggests a society that believes that people are subjugated by nature, therefore, planning in prudent as a tool for performance management. Secondly, it creates a society that is oriented towards ensuring that current performance will be rewarding in the future (Jiang 2015, p. 454). Therefore, in performance management, the management may resort to training and education as a way of motivating the employees. Consequently, the employees will be working in a participative manner, which is an approach used to enhance cultural diversity. Moreover, the recruiting process also becomes easier because it is not intercepted by personal values and beliefs (Venaik & Brewer 2013, p. 477).

Cultural Self Representation Model by Earley and Erez

Discussing the concepts of cultural self representation model, Lent and Brown (2013) explains that the model shows the aspects by which an individual understands him or herself and their cultural values. However, the author is cautious about projecting personal values onto people from other cultures, which can lead to negative consequences in terms of recruitment, training, employee motivation, and overall performance (Maheswaran &Shavitt 2000, p. 59). For instance, when personal values are applied in the recruitment process, the selection of the best candidates is highly compromised. Instead, individuals should try to understand different cultures as a way of enhancing cooperation and productivity (Lent & Brown 2013, p. 557).

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In addition, according to Maheswaran and Shavitt (2000), cultural self representation model is closely related to the motivation of the employees. It should be emphasized that work motivation is an important aspect of job performance. Often, it is a top priority for management in many organizations and includes developing training and development sessions. It also involves a set of processes that are oriented towards maintaining the desired work behaviors and relations (Lent & Brown 2013, p. 557). Therefore, the authors suggest that this model can be applied in cross-cultural management to enhance motivational practices. In essence, this model functions within the cultural dimensions of individualism-collectiveness and power-distance. In terms of the individualism-collectiveness dimension, individual efforts and teamwork are of crucial importance (Maheswaran & Shavitt 2000, p. 63).

On the contrary, the dimension of power-distance refers to the state of power hierarchy. Inequality is also acceptable. Therefore, in order to enhance performance management, the individualism-collectiveness dimension as seen in the cultural self representation model is a recommendable option (Crowne 2013, p. 15). It encourages the participation of employees regardless of their cultural values and beliefs. In contrast, the aspect of power-distance leads to poor performance because individuals are more concerned about representing their culture (Maheswaran & Shavitt 2000, p. 65). In this regard, in a high power distance working environment, the employees are focused on imposing their culture and ideas instead of cooperating with each other. As a result, business functions of recruitment, training and development, and performance management are compromised (Crowne 2013, p. 16).

Report on Cross-cultural Management Models

Understanding the aspects of culture provides the international managers with insights into employees’ behaviors. Secondly, it allows the managers to use their own model to adjust the organizational practices and accommodate cultural diversity (Maheswaran & Shavitt 2000, p. 65). It will be easier to achieve goals and objectives in a productive manner for an organization that is focused on harmony. In other words, the organizations that employ effective cross-cultural management models encourage the employees to improve their productivity. For instance, in an organization that perceives people as being flexible regarding different cultures, the recruitment of the best employees will be enhanced (Crowne 2013, p. 21). Notably, errors can arise due to the cultural differences; however an effective model will come in handy to amend them. The chosen model will provide relative policies and procedures to deal with the situation rather than setting specific and detailed instructions (Venaik & Brewer 2013, p. 476).

Cross-cultural management is widely discussed in terms of the international human resource development. For example, the Hofstede model provides several dimensions to ensure the relevance of accommodating cultural diversity (Van Dyne et al. 2012, p. 296). A focus on the dimension of individualism is related to the extent to which an individual can make decisions that are acceptable at the workplace. This means that in some situations, the management may emphasize the role of the women in the organization (Venaik & Brewer 2013, p. 479). On the contrary, in other circumstances, the need for the role of group will be more relevant. Additionally, individualism is a basic way for creativity, cooperation and achievement. On the other hand, uncertainty avoidance enables the organization to accept and deal with uncertainties (Crowne 2013, p. 22). The organizational members are concerned about the issues of uncertainties and seek effective ways to reduce their impact. In some organizations, uncertainty provides opportunities for innovation, and therefore, the employees should work together to explore these opportunities (Jiang 2015, p. 454).

On a similar note, masculinity versus feminism model is widely used in cross-cultural management. Traditionally, males are perceived as having values of assertiveness, ambition and material possessions while the females are viewed as possessing the nurturing qualities (Venaik & Brewer 2013, p. 480). However, in an organization that focuses on recruiting employees on equality basis these perceptions are not taken into account. In such a way, it becomes easier to create a culture that views both sexes as having equal capabilities. Therefore, men are not perceived to be more aggressive and dominant than women (MacNab &Worthley 2013, p. 78).


The international human resource management is faced with the issues of cultural diversity. The working environments are characterized by the presence of employees from different cultural backgrounds. It therefore means that managing cultural diversity is paramount for enhancing business functions of recruitment, training and development, and performance management. In this regard, several cross-cultural models are applied to ensure that the productivity of the organization is not jeopardized. Firstly, cultural intelligence model reflects the capacity of an individual to adapt to and understand different cultures. Secondly, the Hofstede model employs several dimensions to assist the business environments in dealing with cultural diversity. On the other hand, cultural self representation model developed by Earley and Erez should not be applied with the use of the power distance dimensions because it creates room for inequality rather than teamwork. Finally, the Kluckhohn and Strodebeck’s Value Orientation Model provides the means for accessing and managing international cultures. However, these models have different concepts, but all of them are aimed at accepting, accommodating, and managing cultural diversity in the international human resource management.

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