Gender in Leadership and Emotional Intelligence
Leadership is a guide and the art of motivating a group of people on a way towards a common goal. The leader inspires and guides people to commit certain actions (Zaccaro, Kemp & Bader 2004).). This person has a combination of personal skills and qualities that make other people in the group to follow him and move in the direction indicated by the leader. A leader does not necessarily have any official authority and the leader can be an ordinary person with the minimum necessary set of qualities that help him to influence a group of people (Zaccaro 2001).
In contrast to a supervisor, who is sometimes purposefully elected and appointed more often, and who, being responsible for the situation, ensures his team has official right rewards and punishments of the joint activity. The informal leader is put forward spontaneously. He does not have any official recognition and has no formal duties.
If a head of the group and its leader are not the same person, the relationship between them can contribute to the effectiveness of collaboration and harmonization of the band’s life, or, on the contrary, such relationship can acquire conflicting nature that, in the end, can determine negative development of the group. For example, pro-social and anti-social associations are usually performed by different members of the group. In this case, most often a leader in the community is a member of the group, who is primarily responsible for the preservation and maintenance of a positive emotional atmosphere in the group. Meanwhile the head is aimed primarily at improving the effectiveness of group activity and often does not take into account how it affects the socio-psychological climate community (Yukl 2006).
In corporate groupings as well as in high socio-psychological level of development, as a rule, the functions of the leader and head are assigned to one and the same person. At the same time, the foundation of leadership and management in these two types of highly psychological groups are fundamentally different in their nature. Thus, in the corporate groupings overlapping status and positions of the leader and the head are associated with a clear priority of power relations. Many modern scholars emphasize the role of leaders in the modern world (Stogdill 1948). Three key leadership roles are identified in the group: 1) a leader that is characterized as calm, rational, hard-working, trustworthy, loyal, active, robust; 2) a leader who is popular among colleagues, is sociable, funny, exciting, peaceful, kind; 3) a leader who is called a “black sheep”, a person who is unattractive, indifferent, unsympathetic and negative for the rest of the group.
There are different types of leadership. Situational Leadership is a style of managing people, involving the use of one of the four management styles depending on the situation and the level of development of employees in relation to the problem. Situational Leadership Theory was developed by two scientists Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard (Pielstick 1998). In the 60s, the theory was first described by them in their book «Management of Organizational Behavior».
The concept of strategic leadership appeared in companies not so long time ago. Leadership is a potential ability to express the head of the strategic vision for the whole company or a particular part of it, as well as to motivate and persuade others to adopt this vision. Another definition of strategic leadership is to use a certain strategy in human resource management. In other words, the strategic leadership is a potential impact on the company’s employees, as well as changes on the development and activities of the company. Strategic leaders create an organizational structure, allocate resources and express company’s strategic vision. The main purpose of strategic leadership is a strategic performance (Mann 1959). Creating an environment in which employees can predict the needs of the organization in the context of their work is the second goal of the strategic leadership. Strategic leaders encourage employees to follow their own ideas. They widely use a system of rewards and incentives to encourage productivity and quality of work of their subordinates, thus achieving higher performance of the company.
Functional strategic leadership is the application of ingenuity, understanding and planning to help each employee to realize their goals and objectives. Strategic leaders are people who can create a vision, to express this vision, passionately and persistently maintain its lead the entire team to achieve it.
Emotional Intelligence and Leadership
Emotional Intelligence is the ability to recognize emotions and generate them to facilitate thinking, understanding emotions and what they mean, and adequately manage them in such a way as to contribute to their emotional and intellectual growth. The concept of emotional intelligence was introduced by Peter Steyer and Jack Meyer in 1990 (Locke,1991). In contrast to all the usual understanding of intelligence, it is the ability to interpret and influence the situation, to pick what people want and need, to identify and know strengths and weaknesses. “Emotional intelligence” refers to the ability to recognize their own feelings and the feelings of others, for the purpose of self-motivation, as well as to manage their internal feelings and emotions in relationships with other people.
Models of EI: abilities versus mixed skills
Emotional intelligence is a handy phrase to focus on the emotional component of talent. In the 20th and 30th years of the study “Social Intelligence” Thorndike proposed to consider it as a holistic concept, but modern psychologists (Kanfer 1992) evaluated the complexity of the concept and described the “social intelligence” as a complex multi-element structure of abilities. Judge, Piccolo, and Kosalka, (2009) examined the “social intelligence” as the construction of intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. Bass and Avolio (1994) were the first to use the term “emotional intelligence” and described it as awareness and control of their own emotions and the emotions of others. Other concepts such terms as “practical intelligence” and “intelligence success” often have mixed abilities and are described by other psychologists as cognitive abilities and the emphasis on the result of behavior, in particular the success and effectiveness.
Link between EI and Leadership
Researches show that two thirds of core competencies that are required today for effective leadership, belong to the category of emotional competencies. Great leaders lead people in motion with emotion. As leaders, people have to guide the emotions of his team. If leaders demonstrate positive emotions, people are beginning to show their best abilities. Leaders inspire people to cause resonance in them, and they begin to work with enthusiasm, showing their best qualities. To make the emotional factor to work, leaders must have a high emotional intelligence which determines your ability to control your emotions, as well as emotions and other people.
EI and Transformational Leadership
Emotional intelligence is a factor which is much more important than just technical knowledge and skills. In addition, if a person does not have the emotional intelligence, management of the company and the relationship with the people becomes ineffective.
In the modern business life pace is constantly increasing and the challenges and demands increase. In order to move forward it is necessary to use all his resources, and this requires the inclusion of all of the emotional capabilities. The benefits of this are evident. It increases the efficiency of self-awareness and a deeper understanding of the role of emotional factors in the work.
It is widely believed that a person’s success depends on intelligence and ingenuity and that a high emotional competence is considered as a marker of success and effective professional development. Focusing on the human mental capacity, many people do not pay attention to the emotional components (Ilies, Arvey & Bouchard,2006). Positive or negative emotions have a significant impact on the outcome of the situation. In the case where negative emotions prevail, even the most promising in terms of IQ and education the person can be “stuck” or lose temper. In such case, it is necessary to have high emotional intelligence. Practicing the art of “managing emotions”, people will gain incredible wealth and knowledge about the impact of emotions on their thoughts and behavior, and its effectiveness at work and in their personal lives.
EI and Transactional Leadership
Transformational leadership enhances the performance of followers, morale and motivation through a variety of mechanisms. In this model, the leader is a role model for his followers. The leader should identify strengths and weaknesses in their followers and set them tasks that can optimize their performance (House & Aditya 1997) There are 4 elements of transformational leadership. Firstly, individual review means that the leader must work individually with each of their subordinates. Secondly, intellectual stimulation means that leaders must stimulate and encourage creative endeavors of their followers. Thirdly, inspirational motivation: the leader must ensure people optimistic about solving tasks, instill confidence in them. Fourthly, idealized influence is when a leader is a role model. As a tool of development, transformational leadership has spread across many sectors of Western society, including non-governmental organizations. Kotlyar and Karakowsky (2006), first, summarize the differences between management and leadership, “the essence of management is to do something right, and leadership – the right to choose what to do.” The essence of management is to do something right, and leadership – the right to choose what to do. Rapidly changing markets lead to the fact that many products and services that only a few years ago were quite happy with the tastes of consumers today are obsolete. That leadership allows us to keep abreast of changes in the organization of the surrounding environment, to anticipate the mood of buyers they have to create new needs and motives. “The transformations are taking place today in virtually every industry, and profession, first requires clear leadership and then t control” – Francis Vella writes in their book Gender Roles and Human Capital Investment, which became a worldwide bestseller. “High-performance management is like ordering arrangement of chairs on the deck of the sinking Titanic. No management compensates the failure of leadership”(Turkheimer 2000).
One of the most interesting examples of transformational leader is Bill Gates. He always inspires his subordinates. He gives his employees relative freedom so that they can self-monitor their activities within defined boundaries. They are involved in the process of solving problems and learning new ways of working, thereby increasing productivity. He takes the needs of employees with lower physiological level (safety, reliability) to a higher level of psychological pyramid (self-esteem, self-fulfillment). It is important that the needs of low-level are met through decent wages and good working conditions. However, the transformational leader also provides opportunities for growth and development for each employee. Bill Gates distributes the tasks to improve the ability of employees and match them with corporate objectives. It affects the employees, involving them in the process of change. Bill Gates very often inspires employees and other people to refuse personal interests for the sake of the interests of the group. He motivates subordinates more than their normal rates. They explain to employees the value of the objectives and outcomes and convince them to abandon their personal short-term interests for the sake of the mission of the organization. Subordinates admire him and identify themselves with him; thus Bill Gates enters their confidence. Bill Gates can change and self-sacrifice for the sake of higher goals.
As a transformational leader, Bill Gates allows us to create a picture of the desired future for the sake of which it is possible to overcome all the difficulties associated with the changes. Perhaps the most important task of transformational leadership is to create the desired pattern of the future and enthusiasm for the idea of the incarnation of employees’ dreams. This picture is a guide to action it also brings other aspects of transformational leadership. Changes occur only when people see the goal and know the direction of the organization. Without the prospect, there can be no transformation.
While transactional leaders seek stability, transformational leaders initiate changes for both subordinates and the organization as a whole. Leaders can learn how to apply transaction and transformational management techniques.
Classic manager thinks in a narrow time interval “here and now”. Classic managers allow immediate difficulties and conflicts, getting bogged down in the details they do not allow to review the situation profoundly, and to go beyond the everyday routine questions. Classic manager operates according to the rules that are “written in blood.” Of course, it is necessary to understand it. Though, as a result of an ongoing commitment to act on someone else’s rules, manager closes a road to self-reliance and creativity. Therefore, such managers will never be able to achieve the confidence and wisdom, which are required for the survival and development in a rapidly changing environment.
“To drive a car, watching himself strictly under the wheels is impossible. One has to choose a point 100 meters in front of you and go for it. The higher the speed, the further it has to be a mental point. Transformational leader is a wise man who knows how to keep his car at high speed, “- one of the forum users wrote on one of business sites (Ng, Ang & Chan 2008). To be a transformational leader, it is necessary to change the way of thinking and seeing the world, to turn from the crushed concerns and routine control in order to determine a free leader.
In terms of control, the outside world is something immutable, eternal, what is necessary to adapt and learn the laws and then “live – not to grieve.” It is necessary to understand that this is an illusion, and a quiet life is not ever achievable because life is usually a struggle for survival.
From the point of view of the leader, the outside world is a testing ground for the exercise, an experimental platform for discovery, a white spot on the map, waiting to be discovered, converters and transformers have space for self-realization – of himself and the people who surround him. The term “transformational leadership” was introduced into psychology by B. Bernsom and B. Basom (Bass 1998). Bass describes a transformational leader through a set of four «I»: An individual approach to leadership by developing people
First of all, this style of leadership is associated with the care that manifests leader in the development of employees and their personal interests. The leader knows the needs of their colleagues and provides an environment for them to meet: it provides employees the opportunity to obtain interesting work and training. He gives them tasks that would develop their skills and strengthen your confidence. Employees in this case aspire to develop their professional skills and show initiative. Secondly, it is intellectual stimulation to leadership by stimulating people’s thinking. Leaders encourage employees to use their imagination to think for themselves, to seek for new and creative ways of addressing familiar challenges. Leaders must listen to any ideas, even the most stupid. One of his/ her primary goals is to develop employees’ self-confidence and a desire for self-development. This approach encourages people to rethink their own ideas, and they are looking for and finding new ways to solve old problems. The leader focuses on intelligence, rationality and the best way to gentle the task. Inspirational Motivation is used to inspire people. The leader creates a clear picture of the future that is both optimistic and achievable. He encourages others to raise the level of expectations, reduces complexity by reducing the problem to the key issues, using simple language to convey the organization’s mission. Employees with this type of leadership are willing to expend extra effort in trying to implement the mission. Fourthly, idealized influence to leadership is based on charisma. Leaders aim to be a model for their employees to follow, such leader must be in a constant process of change and development itself. Such leader creates a vision and mission, showing perseverance and determination to achieve them, sacrificing their own selfish interests for the benefit of others that are worthy of respect and trust.(Albritton 1998)
The world around us is changing rapidly. Today, not only consumers dictate the conditions and the brands themselves but also control the behavior of people. From this point of view, leaders are characterized by initiative and the ability to create new brands, new markets and new approaches to management.
According to Bass, leadership development is a process of transformation that entails a progressive reorganization, ending with the highest level of development. One of the primary goals of transformational leadership is to develop followers’ self-confidence and a desire for self-development. According to Bandura’s social learning theory (1977), the behavior is a function of both external and internal events (Morgeson & Ilies 2007).
Leader transforms its employees into leaders who are responsible for their own actions, behavior, performance objectives and personal development. This is a process in which the leader reduces external reinforcement of certain behaviors of employees in order to take effect mechanisms of internal self-government.
Thus, transformational leadership shifts the focus from external to internal controls. In the foreground, the personal growth and development of the employees is of the internal sense of self-efficacy.
Transformational leaders can develop a sense of self-efficacy in their subordinates and peers by doing the following. The leader gives tasks to employees which end up with success. Ever-increasing success encourages people to seek for more difficult targets.
Leaders engage people, providing emotional challenges, which increase their sense of self-efficiency. Emotional challenge is a meaningful aspect of transformational leadership which leads to the fact that transformational leadership depends very much on emotional intelligence. Psychologists are sure that emotional intelligence can help leaders.
This means that if leaders put complex tasks. This will help employees to improve self-confidence and stimulate his desire to test himself in a difficult situation and cope with a difficult task. The leader is able to pass through verbal persuasion sense of the importance of achieving the goal. This increases the likelihood that employees will strive to fulfill the task. Leaders demonstrate the success of their own followers.
Personal model strategy for success is important for leaders and their followers. Focusing on their co-workers leaders will develop increasing personal effectiveness.
In conclusion, it is necessary to say that transformational leadership is based on emotional competences and intelligence.
Gender and Leadership
Gender and leadership are philosophical topics of the human generation. Leadership is dependent on gender and personal characteristics. Nowadays, situation shows that women are capable of performing managerial functions at least as good men. Despite this, they are still a minority in the middle and senior management levels (5 and 1% in the U.S.), (Locke 1991). In post soviet countries, only 7% of women become leaders while men become bosses and every second becomes a head. The first studies on gender aspects of leadership have been conducted in the U.S. by White (1945), Harvelom (1953) (Mumford, Zaccaro, Harding, Jacobs & Fleishman 2000). This topic was actively developed in the 70s.
Judge, Woolf, Hurst, and Livingston, (2006). distinguish the sexes drastically, arguing that the institutional separation between the sexes actually separates the mind and emotions. Research in gender aspects influencing leadership can be divided into three classes. The main factor is gender; the second one is leadership skills; the third one is a combination of leadership and gender. The concept of gender was nominated by Barbara Gutek, who is sure that success or failures depend on gender and personal characteristics (Hogan 1996). Gender theory was developed on the assumption that leading requires different qualities from different sexes. In relation to women, these requirements are higher: to get managing positions women must demonstrate a much greater competence. It is difficult to recognize women as leaders. House and Aditya (1997) suggest that the group dynamics is greatly affected by the proportion of a group of representatives from different cultural categories including gender and race. Members of the group as a majority on some of the above characteristics were identified as dominant and the minority – “tokens” (symbols). They are perceived stereotypically. Thus, women in the men’s group or men’s business world must fit into one of the varieties of social stereotypes: a) “Mother” who is expected to give emotional support, not business activity; b) “Seductress” who appears in the organization as a sexual object with high job status; c) “Toy mascot” who is not so much a leader, women who are bringing luck; d) “Iron Lady” who is attributed to non-female tokens and their fear of keeping them at a distance.
Described above factors actually prevent women from taking an equal position with men. Hogan (1996) suggested ways of overcoming such negative side effects associated with the stereotype and exaggeration in the perception of business and personal properties of tokens. They suggested that people can break down stereotypes, using such methods as an impressive management, effective influence on others through words and actions. With an effective use of deep interpersonal relationships, cultural stereotypes can be destroyed.
To explain the differences between the leaders of both sexes, it is possible to attract the idea of androgyny. Judith Spence considered women who are leaders as a combination of high performance and high masculinity femininity. Sandra Bem represented such phenomenon as a balance between masculinity and femininity (Judge, Colbert & Ilies 2004). Nevertheless, the consequence of both the first and second embodiments, in any case, may become dysfunctional internal conflict in the subject, combining complications.
Supporters of Freudianism traditionally express negative attitude to women’s leadership, tying it with unnatural masculine gender role. They treat women’s desire to lead as a manifestation of the inferiority of women.
Discrepancy in number of male and female leaders in the upper echelons
Nowadays women are capable of performing managerial functions at least as good as men. Despite this, men are still a minority in the middle and senior management levels (5 and 1% in the U.S.), (Burns 2010). In post soviet countries, only 7% of women become leaders, while every second man becomes the head.
The first studies on gender aspects of leadership have been conducted in the U.S. by White (1945) and Harvelom (1953) (Chen, Gully, Whiteman & Kilcullen 2000). This topic became very popular in the 70 years under the influence of feminist psychology.
A common problem of such female discrepancy is that women consistently underestimate their abilities. If specialists test men and women and ask them questions on totally objective criteria as grade point average, male errors will be slightly larger, and female will be slightly smaller. Women do not stand up for their interests in the workplace. The research of the last two years (Avolio, Sosik, Jung & Berson 2003) conducted among college graduates, found that 57% of men who started to work discuss the terms of his first paycheck and only 7% of women do it. The most important is that men attribute their success to themselves and women attribute to other external factors. If psychologists asked men why they got the job done, they would say, “I am a beautiful worker. Why do you ask that? ” If psychologists asked women why they got the job done, they would say that luck helped them and that they worked hard. Why is this important so much?
It is necessary to make women sure about their roles and abilities. Women must believe in themselves, must stand up for their interests. They must assign themselves to their own success.
One of the examples of female leader is Liu Yandong. In 1964, she joined the CPC. In the same year, she came to study at Tsinghua University for Engineering and Department of Chemistry, who graduated in 1970. She was a consultant at the Institute for Political Affairs among classmates. After this, she came to work at a chemical plant in the city of Kaiping (the province of Hebei). In 1972, she went to work on an experimental chemical plant in Beijing. Between 1978 and 1980, Liu Yandong fulfilled functions of a deputy secretary of the CPC Committee of the factory. Between 1980 and 1982, she worked in the Party, in Beijing. Between 1982 and 1991, she was a permanent member of the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Youth League of China (CC PSMA), Vice Chairman, Chairman of the All-China Youth Federation (VFM).
In 1991 – 2003, Liu Yandong worked in the United Front Work Department of CPC Central Committee, Chairman of VFM, then again in the Department of United Front Party group secretary of the Central School of socialism, the deputy chairman of the Foundation for the Memory of honorary chairman of the China Soong Ching Ling Foundation.
Between1990 and 1994, Liu Yandong studied at the Faculty of Sociology, Renmin University of China on the job, Master of Sociology. Between 1994 and 1998, she received the degree of Doctor of Political Sciences at the Faculty of Administration Policy Institute of Jilin University. From 2003 to 2008, Yandong became a Vice Chairman of the People’s Political Consultative Conference. Since 2007, she has been a Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC. Between 2008 and 2013, she was a member of the State Council of China. In March 2013, Liu Yandong became a Vice-Premier of the State Council, the head of the Steering Group in the health system of the State Council.
Stereotypes and Prejudice
The problem is that women cannot achieve leading positions in any profession anywhere in the world. Among 190 leading positions of state, there are only 9 women. Among all members of parliament in the world, there are only 13% of women. In the corporate world, there are 15-16% of women in senior positions. Since 2002, this figure has not grown and even started to decline. Even in non-profit organizations in the sphere in which women must lead, female heads make up 20%.( Arvey, Rotundo, Johnson, Zhang & McGue 2006).
Women have to make difficult choices between career success and realization of oneself as a woman. A recent study in the U.S. has found that, among married senior managers, there are two thirds of men and one third of women. (Barrick, Stewart & Piotrowski 2002).
In the late 19th century, there was a great change of roles and personalities. There appeared passive males and rebellious women. There were two ideal men of the ideal: the hero-lover (Valentino) and macho (Clark Gable). Two wars have changed the man and woman. First, several generations grew effeminate men who were brought up without a father, in the second, there were feminists. Have a man and a woman turned the tables? No, this is a temporary phenomenon. In the 1980s, reality dictated real men such as Arnold Schwarzenegger and Harrison Ford and ideal female Sharon Stone and Kim Basinger.
At the junction of epochs, 1990s again effeminate Leonardo DiCaprio and Brad Pitt, GI Jane Demi Moore and Xena the Warrior Princess appeared. Again, there was the role reversal. At the beginning of the 21th century, incredible feminine Angelina Jolie and Monica Bellucci become perfect wives and mothers. What is about men?
Futurology. The era is replaced. What will be the female ideal of the 21st century? What will be the 21st century man? What will be their relationship? After all, the pagan gods were unable to separate them until the end, and they are drawn to each other like two magnets. According to Bass and Riggio (2006)the ideal man is 1. Easy to assume responsibility, to decide; 2. True to his word and himself; 3. Making everything as soon as possible; 4. Learning from experience, does not repeat the mistakes; 5. Planing ahead, initiate processes; 6. Breaking large goals into achievable is the success of small things.
Transformational and transactional leadership
Transactional and transformational leadership styles are most often compared. James MacGregor Burns (Burns 2010) explained the fundamental difference as follows: “Transactional leaders are leaders who exchange real wages for work on the loyalty of followers. Transformational leaders are leaders who make their followers focus on higher-order their own needs while increasing awareness of the importance of the results of their own labor and the new ways in which these results can be achieved. Transactional leaders tend to be more passive while transformational leaders demonstrate more active behavior.”
In order to summarize, it is necessary to say that the word “leader” means “leading or going ahead.” In each community, each group of people has a person who is the most influential and authoritative. What is necessary to do to become a leader?
A leader is a person who enjoys the highest authority in the group, has the greatest impact, taking responsible decisions in important situations, and governs the relationship and general management of the group.
Is it possible to become a leader? Some people believe that leaders are born while some people think that the brightest human become leaders. There are examples of how the initially modest and diffident people become leaders and leaders of the pack of people. What do you need to do to become a leader? Is there a technique?
To begin, decide which group and why you want to become a leader. It is not possible to be a leader absolutely everywhere: each group has its own characteristics and its demands to the leader. In addition, each leader has a purpose and leadership is a means to achieve it. Leadership for the sake of leadership is doomed to failure. Why? This “leader just because” is usually only revels in his authority and influence on the people, is not benefiting the group. A leader is a person who is willing to take responsibility for others.
This essay analyzes the relationship between leadership, sex and emotional intelligence. Certainly, all these aspects are interdependent. Leadership is based on all of them, and also it includes external factors such as culture, country, and mentality.