Hate Crimes: New Social Movements and the Politics of Violence, by Jenness & Broad (2009) book analyzes such topical phenomenon for the current time as hate crimes, their identification, and definition of the reasons and pretexts of potential hate crimes. Furthermore, the paper presents the discussion of the policy related to the aforementioned scope of interest and its crucial aspects and perspectives.
Reflection and Discussion
Jenness & Broad (2009) regard the phenomenon of hate crimes as an essential part of so-called social problems marketplace. In the course of time, the criminal activity motivated by hatred and bigotry has become a threat and a serious issue. Hence, it is necessary to identify the essence of the phenomenon of hate crime and afterward, discuss the correspondent policy.
It is significant to emphasize that the authors underline the need to properly and relevantly comprehend the phenomenon of hate crimes. First of all, it is appropriate to consider the sequence of definitional types of activities which tend to facilitate all the behavioral patterns, which are considered to be problematic and threatening for the certain percentage of citizens or even more global community. Hence, it is constructive to regard how particular issues interact and impact each other finally resulting in the social problem or even crime. This approach to identification and comprehension of the central issue of the discussion is relevant and perspective as far as “Social problems are not seen as distinct social arrangements to be studied and corrected; rather, they are ‘the interpretive processes that constitute what comes to be seen as oppressive, intolerable, or unjust conditions” (Jenness & Broad, 2009).
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The authors include the following phenomena in the scope of social problems marketplace: hyperactivity, racism and prostitution, driving and alcohol, rape, smoking of different kinds, child abuse, family violence, AIDS, homosexuality, alcoholism, premenstrual syndrome, and other aspects which are considered to be a threat in the context of social community and its interrelation.
Every aforementioned phenomenon as a sample of the social problem within the contemporary society comprises the fact of direct or indirect violation of human rights and dignity. Hence, it is appropriate to dwell on the phenomenon of human rights in the context of the discussion. Actually, the human rights in terms of victimization are to be guaranteed and provided by the constitutional law and regulations. According to new directions from the field: Victims’ Rights and Services for the 21st Century provided by U.S. Department of Justice (VCArchive, n.d., n.p.), the ranges of constitutionally protected human rights affected in the hate crimes cases comprise the following: “the right to notice of public court proceedings and to attend them; to make a statement to the court about bail, sentencing, and accepting a plea; to be told about, to attend, and to speak at parole hearings.” Furthermore, there are such cases as notification of the defendant’s or convict’s death, escape, or actual release as well as restitution or disposition. Consideration of the victim’s safety is also a crucial aspect to be enforced.
It is relevant to discuss the perspectives and opportunities of guarantee and provision of the human rights. Actually, only legal measures and regulations appear to be a sufficient background for protecting and helping the victims of hate crimes in the contemporary society. It is crucial to provide the legal basis that is capable of ensuring that rights of the victims of any kind of hate crimes tend to be on the same level in comparison with the fundamental rights of convicted and accused offenders.
It is essential that the negative and destructive impact of the human rights violation in the course of hate crimes commitment and their aftermath is to be eliminated. Therefore, the diversity of policies and programs are introduced to deal with this tremendous societal threat. For instance, it is appropriate to discuss the policy that comprises profound concern for both of the rights and needs of victims of crime presented by Cook, David & Grant (1999). The authors present the relevant in-depth analysis of the concept of the victim as well as provide the outline of basic victim’s needs and rights along with their actual implementation in practice. Hence, Cook, David & Grant (1999) dwell on the phenomenon of development of the “victim movement,” from the advent of theoretical victimology in the 1940s through to the beginning of the social justice, welfare, and civil rights movements of the 1960s and 1970s; the consolidation of the victim movement in the 1980s; and the ideas of victim support, compensation, counseling, and restorative justice prevalent in the 1990s.
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Hence, such a consistent and constructive approach to the policy implementation results in significant achievements and contribution of the participants of the process to the overall improvement of provision of the rights in terms of victimization.
Furthermore, one more interesting approach to dealing with the social problems’ outcomes is presented in Victims’ Rights Program discussed by Tom Horne (n.d.). As the author of the article states, the aforementioned program is charged with help provision and monitoring within the entities both on state and local levels, which are set out with the purpose of implementing and corresponding to all aspects of contemporary Arizona’s victims’ rights laws. Tom Horne (n.d., n.p.) underlines,
“The Attorney General’s VRP Plan includes the following: (1) disbursement of Victims’ Rights Fund (VRF) monies pursuant to Arizona Revised Statute § 41-191.08, (2) performance and financial evaluations of agencies that receive these monies, and (3) submission of an annual report to the Arizona Governor and Legislature on the Victims’ Rights Program.”
Thus, the significance of the aforementioned program and policy related to the phenomenon of hate crimes and victims’ rights protection comprises the constructive approach and significant dimension of perspectives for further development and improvement. Though, it is obligatory to take into account the dramatic increase in the course of crime activity rates and align the perspective improvements with the criminal records. Hence, it is necessary to pre-anticipate potential controversies and complications within the discussed scope and provide efficient alternative solutions for every type of social problematic case outcomes.
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- Cook, B., David, F & Grant, A. (1999). Victim’s needs, victim’s rights.
- Horne, T. (n.d.). Victims’ rights program.
- Jenness, V & Broad, K. (2009). Hate crimes: New social movements and the politics of violence. Piscataway, NJ: Aldine Transactions.
- VCArchive. (n.d.). New directions from the field: Victims’ rights and services for the 21st century.