Music in Western Civilization
Modern Music in the Classical Tradition
Contemporary classical music is a music composition in the style of classics like the present time, and the time of the works of the second half of the twentieth century. The big difference between them does not exist, perhaps only in the mastery of drawing.
Contemporary classical music remains popular and not gives up its position even along with traditional tunes that have been written in different periods of the history by various prominent composers. Using live instrumental orchestras, contemporary classical music is becoming more and more popular, covering an audience of various age groups. This kind of music is decent, charming and beloved by many listeners.
As recent cultural studies, art and music have different functions. Contemporary classical music can immerse people in reality equal to his highest ideals on one hand, and allows the listener to experience their energy and desire persisting on the other side. Of course, the second feature of the music may be contrary to the first, but this is a contradiction for culture and personality. Contemporary classical music is especially nice to hear it in a large concert hall among many of the same fans and judges (OTQEF, 2013).
However, the perception and enjoyment of music is largely dependent on what we are in the concert hall of how well equipped this room, what it acoustics. For example, many managers of concert halls are particularly demanding, for repairs to the anti-static properties, dusting items such areas as polymer flooring and wall, and ceiling covering. It all plays a huge role in the perception of the concerts of contemporary classical music.
Germany and Austria
In the XX century, Germany has given the world some of the most prominent composers: Paul Hindemith, Arnold Schoenberg, Karlheinz Stockhausen. In addition to the composers who lived in present-day Germany, Austria, German composers (Mozart, Liszt, Strauss) made a significant contribution to German and world music.
Germany has made a big contribution to the various genres of rock music, having on the world stage such representatives as the Scorpions, Bonfire (hard rock), Accept, UDO, Grave Digger (heavy metal), Blind Guardian, Helloween (power metal (founders style)), Kreator, Gamma Ray, Tankard, Destruction, Sodom (thrash metal), Rammstein, Oomph! (Industrial metal), In Extremo, Unheilig, Tanzwut (folk rock), Crematory (gothic rock), Guano Apes (alternative rock), Das Ich, ASP, Untoten (Gothic), Tokio Hotel (pop-rock) Cinema Bizarre (glam rock), Nevada Tan.
German electronic music presented by artists and ensembles as Kraftwerk, Enigma, Tangerine Dream, Klaus Schulze. Notable Projects and musicians in styles trance, pop trance and techno: Scooter, Sash!, Paul van Dyk, Blank & Jones, ATB, 666, Markus Schulz, Cosmic Gate, as well as Kai Tresid, Oliver Lieb (Oliver Lieb), Timo Maas (Timo Maas), Talla 2XLC. The vast majority of teams in the style of Eurodance (1990) were from Germany: Captain Jack, Activate, Culture Beat, E-rotic, Fun Factory, Masterboy, La Bouche and others (Kmetz, et al., 2008).
Pop music scene in Germany has been known since the 70’s, and its representatives such as Sandra, Dschinghis Khan, Modern Talking, Boney M., Bad Boys Blue succeeded far beyond the borders of their country, including in Russia. Today the music market in Germany is the third largest in the world.
German scene has its own narrow national varieties. So, for example, allocate such directions in the music of Germany, as kraut-rock, Neue Deutsche Welle (an offshoot of the new wave), Neue Deutsche Härte (German industrial). In Germany, there was born a genre of power metal, which later became international.
Achille-Claude Debussy is a French composer and music critic. His music belongs to Impressionism. Debussy was not only one of the most important French composers, but also one of the most important figures in music at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries. His music is a form of transition from late-Romantic music to modernism in music of the XX century.
French composer Claude Debussy is often called the father of music of the XX century. He showed that every sound, chord tone can be heard in a new way, can live a free, multi-color life, likes to enjoy their own sound, its gradual dissolution in mysterious silence. There is a lot in common with scenic impressionism of Debussy: self-sufficient brilliance elusive, fluid-moving moments, the love of the landscape, the air space of trepidation. However, he further than the Impressionist painters, went from traditional forms, letting his music in our century is much deeper than painting Monet, Renoir and Camille Pissarro (Lesure, Howat, 2009).
Debussy believed that music is like the nature of its naturalness, infinite variability and multiple forms: “Music – just art that is closest to nature… Only musicians have an advantage to catch all the poetry of the night and day, earth and sky, to recreate the atmosphere and their rhythmic hand them an immense surge.” The nature and the music of Debussy felt like a mystery, and above all the mystery of birth, the unexpected, unique design whimsical play of chance. It is, therefore, understandable skeptical and ironic attitude of the composer to all kinds of theoretical stamps and labels against art, inadvertently schematizes living reality of art.
The favorite genre composer was a software suite (orchestral and piano), as if a series of diverse musical paintings were static scenery set off swiftly moving, often danceable rhythms. These are the suites for orchestra «Nocturnes» (1899), «The Sea» (1905) and «Images» (1912). Piano created «Prints», 2 notebooks «image», «Children’s Corner», which Debussy dedicated to his daughter. In «Prints» composer for the first time tries to get used to the musical worlds of different cultures and peoples colorfully interspersed with each other sonic image of the East («Pagoda»), Spain («Evening in Grenada») and full of movement, light and shadow landscape with French folk Song («Gardens in the Rain»).
The First Modern Generation
For a long period music has played an important role in the life of Germany and gradually formed national musical traditions. There was a talented youth of the country, who had a proud of Bach and Handel, Beethoven and Schubert, Brahms and Wagner – these great musicians were worthy example to follow. Today, the state provides significant support to the further development of the music industry: sponsored by composers, regularly hosts music festivals, including the world-famous Wagner Festival, organized every summer in Bayreuth. Other notable annual festivals are events held in honor of Beethoven and Mozart in Bonn in Würzburg. There is a curious fact that now there have been more than three hundred thousand Germans – professional musicians.
In addition to the famous musical geniuses of the past distinguished quality and creativity of contemporary composers, the whole world admires symphonies and operas of Karlheinz Stockhausen and Carl Orff, who supported the German musical tradition for the XX-XXI centuries. In their works, they turned to the musical roots, combining classical music with folk motifs.
Germany has raised many famous bands. Thus, the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra is one of the best orchestras in the world. There was well-deserved recognition as marked Dresden, Munich, Bamberg Symphony Orchestra and the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra.
The modern German music is also worthy of mention. Today the music market in Germany is the third largest in the world. Germany has made a big contribution to the various genres of rock, pop and electronic music. In addition, it was in Germany originated the genre of «Power Metal», which later became international (TRUMPET, 2008).
Germany is different and gorgeous vocal training, as well as spectacular scenic productions of the operas that even applies to the theaters of small towns. Numerous tourists rush to visit the great opera houses in Berlin, Dresden, Munich and Hamburg, Leipzig and Stuttgart, Frankfurt and Bayreuth.
Music is almost inseparable from the expression of emotions and feelings through body language and plastics – dance. Glory Stuttgart, Frankfurt, Hamburg Ballet, and the Bavarian National Ballet have spread far beyond Germany.
The avant-garde music is a kind of modern music some elements of which are of radical-innovationist aesthetics. It is assumed that this type of music aesthetically is ahead of its time (Griffiths, 1981).
As in the case of «experimental music», the term «avant-garde music» often is used to characterize the radical composers and their works. There is no clear distinction between these terms described areas of music that represent the cutting edge of contemporary musical thought and practice. Some musicologists draw the line between avant-garde and experimental music from the point of view of their relations with Eurocentric musical tradition. According to them, in the most general terms, avant-garde music has extreme position within the tradition while experimental music lies outside it.
In a purely historical aspect, the term «avant-garde music» is used in musicology primarily to refer to radical innovation with strange music modernist composers and the New Viennese School («Vanguard – I», until the death of Anton Webern in 1945). So is the subsequent period, up to the beginning of the XXI century, with its equally radical innovation on the part of representatives of the various directions of musical postmodernism («Vanguard – II») (Nicholls, 1998).
Today, the term «avant-garde music» can be applied to any non-experimental music, aesthetics which radical innovation in relation to the aesthetic innovations of Music «Vanguard – I» and «Vanguard – II».
Late Romantic or Modern
The complexity and diversity of musical events started at the beginning of XX century. The variety of ways to develop contradictory foreign music from the beginning of XX century while the classical-style of the XVIII century flourished under the sign of the Mind and the high ideals and romantic art of the XIX century. Reflecting the disharmony of the soul, the conflict (the gap) dreams and reality, the art of the XX century and woven classic and romantic features, go out there and new directions: impressionism, expressionism, neoclassicism, constructivism, etc.
Search the unusual means of expression – a characteristic feature of modernity. There is a pattern of change of musical thinking. Art, in the context of turbulent historical processes of the XX century, means social conflict, two world wars, fear of nuclear disaster, technical progress, the problems of today.
Late Romanticism is one of the areas of the century’s turn. Remind representatives and features of the XIX century romanticism (Schmidt-Jones, Russell, 2004). G. Mahler (1860 – 1949) and Richard Strauss (1864 – 1849) were the last ptominent representatives of late Romanticism.
Gustav Mahler is an Austrian composer. He was born and lived until the age of 16 in the Czech Republic, but the future life and work were associated with Vienna. There were heavy teens in a large family hardworking small shopkeeper. Support for father’s creative endeavors. Working opera conductor for 15 years, went to cities, was in America, 3 times in Russia, experiencing the bitterness of the struggle with the theatrical routine.
The creativity concentrated in two genres: songs and symphonies. Songs diary composer, symphony is an expression of philosophical reflection. Mahler is «the idea of an artist», putting in his work life and death, good and evil, man and nature. Luden called for unity and moral purification, to search for a lost ideal.
Richard Strauss is a major composer, conductor. He survived two world wars, lived in Nazi Germany, but did not support the chauvinistic views, believed in the power of art and humanism.