The use of non-parametric methods in MBA graduates from for-profit and non-profit programs has become prevalent in the recent past. Such methods are preferred due to their simplicity and robustness when used to analyze data and make decisions. Thus, training institutions see them as development methods that are not only simple to grasp and apply but that can also meet the needs of MBA graduates. The aim of current paper is to provide a literature review of non-parametric methods for MBA graduates from non-profit programs versus for-profit programs.

The increased demand for MBA programs has led to educators developing methods of learning that specifically address the need of students in such programs. As such, the methods applied are designed in a way that considers the characteristics and the nature of the organizations that students work in. Most MBA programs are designed to address the specific needs of students, most of whom are managers and CEOs of their organization (Colbert, Levary, & Shaner, 2000). Learning institutions offering MBA programs must, therefore, understand not only the needs of their MBA graduates but also the nature of the organizations that they are working in with the view of developing non-parametric methods that address their needs. To achieve such goal, it is essential that the design is aligned with the identifiable needs of the group.

For example, non-parametric methods targeting MBA graduates in non-profit programs are different from those that target graduates in for-profit programs. The differentiation is essential in ensuring that each group of graduates receives the appropriate skills and knowledge that address the needs in their areas of work. Non-parametric methods are, thus, diversified in terms of professional targets, as well as the nature of the organization that graduates intend to work for. Current paper provides a literature review of non-parametric methods for MBA graduates from non-profit programs versus for-profit programs. The literature review focuses on findings of other researchers on areas of convergence, divergence and application of non-parametric methods for MBA graduates in for-profit and non-profit programs in learning institutions.

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Application of Non-Parametric Methods for MBA Programs

Recent developments in educational needs caused changes in the way higher learning is provided to a large segment of MBA graduates around the world. For-profit programs targeting MBA graduates are designed to capitalize on the trend in the market, whereby many MBA graduates are in high demand (Heijke, Meng, & Ris, 2003). To this end, for-profit programs normally attract a high number of MBA graduates than non-profit programs. It is an indication that would show the diverging area in terms of non-parametric methods applied in the programs. The non-profit programs are endangered by the proliferation of MBA programs that target graduates intending to work in for-profit organizations (Mane, 1998).

The marketplace for MBA graduates with skills in non-parametric methods is dynamically empowered to compete in the market with particular non-parametric skills. As a result, it is essential that non-parametric methods targeting MBA graduates for for-profit programs are streamlined in consideration of the needs in their marketplace. The use of non-parametric methods for MBA programs is well-presented in literature. Learning institutions are aware of the advanced needs of MBA learners and have developed programs that seek to address their needs in the context of their areas of work (Colbert, Levary & Shaner, 2000). Non-parametric methods in MBA programs are designed in line with the for-profit or non-profit nature of the organization.

The design of non-parametric methods targeting MBA graduates for non-profit and for-profit programs is based on the needs of students in developing the competencies necessary for their work. Non-parametric methods, thus, are addressed to the adequacy of the skills that MBA graduates are expected to have and which can empower them to work effectively in their respective organizations (Mane, 1998). Thus, non-parametric methods focus on developing two types of human competencies among the MBA graduates. The first competence is vocational, which is based on the field-specific competencies to enable the graduate to fit in the field that they want to work in the future. The second is generic competency that seeks to evaluate the analytical abilities, learning abilities and problem-solving skills that can address the challenges experienced in for-profit and non-profit environment (Zimmerman, 2003)

Institutions of higher learning have developed non-parametric methods that enhance the achievement of human competencies in non-profit and for-profit work environment. Post & Spronk (1999) noted in their research that there is a strong emphasis on vocational non-parametric methods in most of MBA programs in non-profit environment. In contrast, Trieschmann et al. (2000) have argued that the essence of generic competencies, as outlined in non-parametric methods that target MBA graduates for non-profit working environment, is equally essential in empowering the students with the skills to tackle the challenges in such environment. Thus, the non-parametric methods applied to MBA graduates in non-profit and for-profit programs should not be bound in a particular context. Instead, they should empower the graduate to gain skills in a wide range of domain.

The use of non-parametric methods targeting MBA graduates from different programs is specifically aimed at addressing their learning abilities, while contributing to the acquisition of the necessary competencies. As noted by Joumady & Ris (2005), human capital competencies are not likely to influence the benefits accrued to graduates in for-profit and non-profit programs. It is an aspect reserved for earlier training that the graduates had in their undergraduate training. Specifically, the generic competency levels experienced through non-parametric learning experiences can contribute to the allocation of jobs to MBA graduates outside their area of specialization (Heijke, Meng, & Ris, 2003).

Non-parametric methods, thus, could be used as on-job training that seeks to empower the MBA graduate with the skills to be effective across different work environments. Vocational competency levels, on the other hand, usually affect the opportunity that MBA graduates have to match their occupational skills with their own educational domains. The result is that non-parametric methods tend to empower MBA graduates with comparative advantage to work across different sectors in for-profit and non-profit programs. In addition, any presence of a mismatch in the vocational competencies will indicate that MBA graduates do not have the competency levels required for them to work in a given environment (Joumady & Ris, 2005). The effect is reduced productivity based on the non-parametric methods applied during the learning process.

The Efficiency of Non-Parametric Methods Targeting For-Profit and Non-Profit Programs

The use of non-parametric methods for MBA graduate programs is closely linked to the need to streamline performance. It dates back to the ancient times when philosophers were concerned with the fact that people performed their tasks differently when they knew that they were working for profit. Thus, the concept of improved performance is a problematic issue while offering MBA programs that address the needs of the learners in the context of their working environment. Non-parametric methods are, therefore, designed to deliver scientific management skills to MBA graduates who are later expected to fit well in their areas of work and show good performance in terms of improved productivity. Thus, as noted by Drew (2002), non-parametric methods for MBA graduates have been diversified depending on the characteristics of the program. The areas of diversification include the economic, political and accounting management.

Performance assessment systems that use non-parametric methods have a political dimension that reflect the mission and vision that the student wants to achieve. The methods are aimed at improving and enhancing the performance in for-profit and non-profit programs and enhance the economies based on the ideologies espoused by the learner. Assessment of institutional performance in terms of delivery methods should be based on the needs that the program wants to address, as well as improve the decision-making power of the learner (Drew (2002).

To this end, conceptualizing economic performance for MBA graduates is inherent within the non-parametric methods that the institution chooses to use in teaching the graduates. The sustainability and applicability of the non-parametric methods is important in line with the performance of the organization (McKenney, 2009). The growth and development levels of non-profit and for-profit programs targeting MBA graduates is a factor of type of non-parametric methods used in learning. A real economic democracy determines the applicability of the skills that MBA graduates develop and use to achieve efficiency in their programs. The efficiency is, thus, an element of willingness to be flexible in using non-parametric programs to select students for non-profit and for-profit programs.

In choosing to use a particular non-parametric method for MBA graduates, it is important that the choice is based on the performance needs. An illustration of the concept is the privatization of public utilities. In this sense, MBA graduate programs are thought of as utilities that are privatized in line with the needs of for-profit and non-profit organizations (Zimmerman, 2003). It has the effect of giving the graduate an opportunity to control the level of experience that they have and the skills that they gain from using a certain non-parametric method in solving the problems at their place of work. Market conditions and competition in the market place inform the selection of non-parametric method used in teaching of MBA graduates (Stray, Naude, & Wegner, 1994).

The goal is to ensure that MBA graduates achieve their vision at a lower cost, while improving their capacity to be efficient in their work. For non-profit programs, the vision is to experience competencies and skills that empower them to contribute to social development in the best possible way. For-profit organizations, programs are highly entrenched in the performance achievement with a view of gaining long-term benefits and skills applied in their area of work. The MBA graduate should also have an opportunity to maintain the competencies acquired in a long-term basis with enhanced productivity and efficiency to the organization (Debnath, Shankar, & Kumar, 2008).

The use of non-parametric methods in teaching MBA graduates is also attached to the performance and accounting in for-profit and non-profit organizations. Accountability is closely linked to the process of informing the stakeholders of an organization about the decisions that have been made and the impact that such decisions have had on the organizational performance. MBA graduates ought to be neutral transmitters of skills and competencies, whether working in for-profit or non-profit entities. They should be in a position to provide strategic information and management to the organization by analyzing performance and productivity issues. A strong correlation is found in literature indicating that non-parametric methods are essential to improvement of productivity and efficiency in for-profit and non-profit organizations.

For instance, Sav (2012) points to the demand in data to implement human resource competencies in private and public organizations through development of relevant information systems that ensure maximum returns in terms of performance. The challenge posed in the application of non-parametric methods in teaching MBA graduates is evidenced in the econometric methods that are used to assess the efficiency of the programs to prepare students to work in different environments. The problem of appropriate functional forms can lead to distribution of challenges in the system because the learners are not prepared to handle various input and output scenarios in their places of work.

As observed by Sav (2012), one of the important aspects of using non-parametric methods is the ability to apply to a wide range of data. The data required for non-profit and for-profit programs is highly differentiated in terms of scope. Non-parametric method use is essential in achieving data ranking without the need to have numerical interpretation. MBA graduates need to analyze data as applied in their areas of work, including the assessment of preferred decisions and measurement levels to produce ordinal data that is useful to their work.

The making of assumptions is also a feature that differentiates how non-parametric methods are used in for-profit and non-profit organizations. Without the need to make assumptions on the relevancy of the data at hand, MBA graduates may find a wider range of application where they can use the skills acquired in the learning environment. In particular, such information can be applied in areas where the graduate has no prior information about the application of data. The need for robustness in the application of non-parametric methods is reinforced by the reliance on fewer assumptions on data available to the user (Stray, Naude, & Wegner, 1994). For-profit and non-profit entities always generate much data which must be applied in a robust way to achieve the results needed to make decisions.

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Debnath, Shankar & Kumar (2008) observed that non-parametric methods are simple and uncomplicated and, sometimes, are applied in situations where parametric methods are justifiable. To this end, they allow for less opportunity to be improperly applied and misunderstood by the user. MBA graduates working in a fast and dynamic environment need to have skills that can empower them, while also giving them an opportunity to enhance the way they manage and control their data variables. McKenney (2009) noted that a wide range of applications of non-parametric methods and robustness of tests that uses non-parametric approaches can be inhibited by the cost and mutuality between the parametric and non-parametric methods. Users of the statistical analysis methods can make conclusions that are based on the proven methods of analyzing the given data.

MBA Programs as Multiple Constituencies of For-Profit and Non-Profit Programs

The role that MBA graduate programs play in inculcating managerial skills in students is defined in the constituencies, in which such students work. According to it, most MBA graduate programs are made with the view of exploring knowledge through research and exploiting corresponding knowledge through instructions in a class setting (Sav, 2012). A consideration of the non-parametric methods that can help achieve such objectives is important in training MBA graduates for non-profit and for-profit programs. Through research performance, MBA graduates are able to situate their needs in accordance with the characteristics of the environment that they intend to work in after school. More important is that the knowledge that they acquire through learning prepares them to tackle the challenges that they encounter whether in a non-profit or for-profit environments (Drew, 2002). The skills and the knowledge imparted in them through the use of non-parametric methods contribute to the development of relevant human capital competencies useful in their career development.

Performance indicators for most MBA graduates in for-profit and non-profit programs are varied in line with the use of non-parametric methods that were applied during their learning. The variation is an indication that the impact of non-parametric methods on the development of capacity to performance is diversified in the context of the environment, in which the learner receives the skills. The students involved in for-profit programs tend to consider the accountability, political and economic ramifications of the analysis methods that they adopt. The reason for it can also be that they are much aware of the minimum standards that must be maintained in order to achieve efficiency and good performance in their places of work (Joumady, 2005).

In designing the approach to use of non-parametric methods in teaching MBA graduates, it is essential that a consideration is given to the characteristics and the needs of the students. A consideration could be based on the elements that differentiate for-profit organizations from non-profit organizations as a basis for using certain non-parametric approaches to teach MBA graduates. Knowledge of such constituencies can enhance the use of non-parametric methods in making decisions towards the provision of skills and competency development, reflecting the needs in the marketplace. In the context of business schools, it is also important to consider the existing sub-cultures as the drivers of organizational performance and efficiency, as well as the role that research will play in training the MBA graduates (Trieschmann et al., 2000).

Understanding the dynamics of the marketplace for MBA graduates is also required to enhance the applicability of the non-parametric methods that they adapt in their course of learning. Non-parametric methods should also enhance the experience of MBA graduates with the courses that are being offered. Majority of MBA programs for graduates are targeted at a general working environment where the student is a leader or a serving manager, without empowering them with skills to undertake technical roles (Post & Spronk, 1999). To this end, the use of non-parametric methods can contribute to the acquisition of relevant and appropriate skills that can define the course of action and the direction undertaken by the learners in their career and professional advancement.

Debnath, Shankar & Kumar (2008) noted that using non-parametric methods in teaching of MBA graduates in different categories need to be accompanied by functional forms of productions that help them estimate the production efficiency in their places of work. Efficiency is an important measure of non-parametric methods application success level in for-profit and non-profit formulations. In some cases, researchers on current topic have tried to use linear programming of the model for measuring performance, which has the disadvantage of not providing methods to estimate the input and the output of the employee (Post & Spronk, 1999). The essence of development a verifiable rationale for using a particular set of non-parametric indicators to teach MBA students is that it contributes to the understanding of the market place dynamics.

It also empowers the graduates to be conscious of such dynamics, while equipping them with skills and competencies that are useful across different working environment. The need to address competing needs and requirements from MBA graduates can also be addressed by use of appropriate non-parametric methods in teaching and analyzing the capabilities of the learners. Sav (2012) developed parallel thoughts to the ones espoused above by arguing that there is an existent non-allocation of inefficiency in areas where MBA graduates are not intentionally exposed to different non-parametric methods of analyzing their working environment. It is important that apart from maximizing the technical abilities of graduates they also consider the dynamics presented by the pressure from the market (Colbert, Levary, & Shaner, 2000).

Current literature review concerns the use of non-parametric methods for MBA graduates from for-profit and non-profit programs. Notably, the differences experienced in the way such methods are applied are based on the different needs in the market place. Non-parametric methods seek to empower MBA graduates with skills to work in multi-diversified environments. For-profit programs apply the methods that empower the graduates to analyze the dynamics, including the need to observe standards, meet set minimums and produce results in line with the expectations set for them. Professional work is also exhibited in the way issues of data analysis and statistical exploration are obtained in a typical work environment. To this end, it is essential that non-parametric methods targeting MBA graduates for for-profit programs are streamlined in consideration of the needs in their marketplace. The use of non-parametric methods for MBA programs is well-presented in literature. Learning institutions are aware of the advanced needs of MBA learners and have developed programs that seek to address their needs in the context of their areas of work. Non-parametric methods in MBA programs are designed in line with the for-profit or non-profit nature of the organizations.

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