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  • Carlson, S. A., Fulton, J. E., Lee, S. M., Maynard, L. M., Brown, D. R., Kohl, H. W., & Dietz, W. H. (2008). Physical education and academic achievement in elementary school: Data from the early childhood longitudinal study. American Journal of Public Health, 98(4), 721-727.

In this research article, the association between the time spent in physical education classes and academic achievements in preschool were examined. Higher amounts of physical activity were not associated with academic achievement among boys, but among girls the effect was positive. The findings were that physical activity is beneficial to all children but a higher amount has benefits for young girls. Physical activity did not influence academic performance negatively among young children.

The researchers also suggested that physically active children are less likely to suffer from chronic disease factors such as diabetes and obesity. They concluded that physical activity has a positive influence on brain functions and may be useful in improving academic achievement of students. Studies of the direct effects of physical activity on academic performance reveal that it improves memory, concentration and reduces disruptive behavior among children. Therefore, there is a positive association between physical activities and academic achievements and performance.

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This source is beneficial to this research, because it provides details on physical exercises and academic activities and their relationship to the overall academic performance of the learners. As such, it will help in striking the right balance between time management of the two in order to improve both aspects of education. Furthermore, the source is relevant to the research since it addresses the issue of academic performance and physical activities.

  • Castelli, D. M., Hillman, C. H., Buck, S. M., & Erwin, H. E. (2007). Physical fitness and academic achievement in third-and fifth-grade students. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29(2), 239.

Castelli and the co-authors did a study on the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievements. The study was focused on children because of the current trends of health-related issues among children, especially obesity. The study used subjects from the third and fifth grade. The findings of the study were that physical fitness was positively correlated to academic performance. It is worth noting that aerobics was found beneficial in improving academic performance but the body mass index had a negative correlation. The physical exercises were found to aid in improvement of performance in mathematics and languages.

The findings established that physical activity could be maximized in schools to have a positive implication for policy making in education. Physical activities have been associated with reduced incidences of disease, such as childhood obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been suggested to possess a wealth of advantages to those who train regularly especially in cognitive and muscular heath. Increased physical activity among children is suggested to be small but positive with benefits outweighing the potential risks. The study concluded that disruptive behaviors are reduced by physical activities, though the positive effects related to it and the educational experience remains unclear.

The source declares many benefits in the research as it provides info that demonstrates the link between physical activities and academic performance. It is relevant to the topic under research since the data therein will be used in the formulation of the recommendations.

  • Sallis, J. F., McKenzie, T. L., Kolody, B., Lewis, M., Marshall, S., & Rosengard, P. (1999). Effects of health-related physical education on academic achievement: Project SPARK. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70(2), 127-134.

In this article, Sallis and the co-authors examine the effects of a two-year health related school physical education program on some standardized achievement scores in elementary school children before and after the program. Two groups were assigned special conditions for teaching, playing, and active recreation and physical exercise curriculum implementation respectively. The third group was used as control for the experiment and was allowed to continue with their usual programs. The findings were that the health program did not interfere with the academic achievements but instead was favorable to them. They recommend quality school physical education programs for all children because of the proven health benefits. There is a concern that despite the benefits of physical exercises, school administrators reduce instruction time as they view it as a time waster to core academic subjects. There has been a historical resistance to physical education and its curriculum implementation.

The authors suggest that quality physical education contributes positively to academic and intellectual growth and development of students. There is an established relationship between mind and body and the way physical activity aids learning. Studies on humans and animals have revealed that brain areas involved in motor and intellect are closely linked and connected and exercises increase neural connections and reactions. Sequential movement stimulates the brain in the prefrontal cortex, which is used for learning and problem solving, thereby improving learning. In summary, physical activity and exercise could improve the attention of learners in class setting by arousing neurons and their mechanisms.

The material is informative as it provides the necessary information concerning performance in academic work and physical training programs. As such, it will be of great relevance to the research, as the data drawn from the source will be used in the literature review section as well as in the coining of the recommendations at the end of research findings.

  • Taras, H. (2005). Physical activity and student performance at school. Journal of School Health, 75(6), 214-218.

In this study, Taras examined the relationship between physical activity in school aged children and academic performance. The studies have shown that there is a weak correlation between activity levels and better academic performance, but the results are statistically significant. The extent of the direction of the cause-effect was difficult to examine. However, daily physical activity among school going children was recommended.

The physical education program should be good and chronological as a way of structuring the students’ understanding and abilities in a developmentally suitable way. The study concluded that physical activity stimulates the the brain and this helps to improve concentration levels among students. The findings from this article suggest that physical health has some association to academic achievements and should warrant the consideration of education policy makers. Opportunities for students to be energetic and become fit should be encouraged by learning centers.

This source is beneficial to the research topic as it provides a link between physical activities and academic performance. The authors find that academic performance has nothing to do with physical activities. It is relevant in that it will aid in building up necessary recommendations of the topic in general and provide information on how physical exercise programs and academic programs ought to be coordinated.

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  • Tudor-Locke, C., Ainsworth, B. E., Adair, L. S., Du, S., & Popkin, B. M. (2003). Physical activity and inactivity in Chinese school-aged youth: The China Health and Nutrition Survey. International Journal of Obesity, 27(9), 1093-1099.

In this study, Tudor-Locke and his counterparts examined physical activity and inactivity levels and patterns among Chinese schoolchildren (aged 6–18). The findings of the study proved that the Chinese youths are distinctively matched up to those in other third world countries, because they are pressured to achieve academically and do not have time to engage in physical activities. Participation in co-curricular activities outside the school is rare, but the majority of students walk to school while a small percentage uses bicycles. The prevalence of obesity is low in China, though the country has experienced rapid changes in health and nutrition. However, due to social transformation, health-related illnesses have become a concern. The study also relates physical activity and exercise to mental health. It concludes that physical activity definitely has positive effect on some mental issues. Proper physical exercise can help people improve interpersonal skills and cognitive functioning.

The study is informative in that the info gleaned from it will be used for building up various arguments in the research topic. Furthermore, it will be material in establishing the physical activity programs and academic programs as conducted in Chinese schools.

  • Trudeau, F., & Shephard, R. J. (2008). Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5(1), 10.

In this brief paper, Trudeau reviews the relationship between physical education, school physical activities, games, and academic performance. These relationships have been an issue of discussion between its advocates and opponents of physical activity. The features of this debate are that academic achievements and physical activities are independent variables in a child’s mental health. The main purpose of this study was to establish the effects of physical education on academic achievements in both elementary school and high school. Earlier studies have assessed the relationship and shown that physical education may have a positive impact on learning and stimulate memory. It is now notable that physical activities are associated with the sustenance of some brain functions among the elderly and protect them against some diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Brain dysfunctions among the elderly have become an issue of concern for public health officials, given the rise in the average life expectancy in the modern society. A positive correlation between physical exercise and mental health has been found in the younger children though it is not documented in many scholarly articles. The article suggests that positive influence of physical exercise on mental functions of young children is important, as that will allow policy makers to increase types of school physical activities without risking academic progress.

The paper is important and beneficial as it reviews the relationship that exists between academic performance and physical activity programs. This is relevant to the topic under research since the information provided will be used in the literature review section and in drawing up of the recommendations.

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