The contemporary system of healthcare develops and improves constantly. The demands of patients and the challenges of new diseases and complications predetermine permanent adjustments that are implemented in the medical scope in order to provide proficient and effective medical treatment. Innovative approach to solutions in healthcare sector is widely implemented in the current course of time. Progress in medicine improvement, its efficiency and safety are the crucial tasks for modern medical scope. Moreover, constructive adjustments of the routine working process of medical personnel form an obligatory part of innovations. One of such adjustments is electronic medical records (hereinafter EMR).
Health Information Systems (hereinafter HIS) involve diverse technological instruments that are targeted to improve the course of patient care and augment overall efficiency of hospital personnel (Hasanain, Vallmuur & Clark, 2014). To be more precise, such technological advancement provides effective tools for documentation of necessary patient information, structures the acquired data properly, and contributes to the overall excellence of patient care. One of such systems is EMR. The introduction of EMR system was made in Saudi Arabia in 1988 (Hasanain, Vallmuur & Clark, 2014). Nowadays, EMR are being implemented with dramatically escalating rate. There is a variety of EMR forms that correspond to specific needs of hospitals. According to Halas, Singer, Styles and Katz (2015), “Electronic medical records (EMRs) propose to enhance the quality of care, and, in spite of limited evidence of a positive effect on patient care, they are being widely implemented” (p. 232).
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Prevalence of the Problem/Significance/Relevance to Practice
The use of EMR is a perspective and simultaneously challenging experience. It is widely implemented, but the level of its efficiency remains questionable. The scholars highlight that one of the major factors that predetermine efficiency of the systems for documenting patients’ data is their proper implementation (Boonstra, Versluis & Vos, 2014). According to Halas, Singer, Styles and Katz (2015), “Initial implementation challenges include reduced productivity, which might contribute to or result in resistance to the EMR” (p. 232). The aforementioned challenges are usually caused by underlying alterations in documentation processes. Moreover, the course of laboratory results management, as well as communicational patterns in terms of interaction between hospital personnel and patients (Halas, Singer, Styles & Katz, 2015). Hence, it is vital for hospital personnel to understand that there will be serious barriers and challenges in the course of EMR system implementation and it should be a starting point for the given process. Furthermore, a systematic and consistent approach should be used in order to provide efficient background for EMR use. The barriers are often based on insufficient training of hospital employees and their undervaluation of the significant impact EMR systems have on patient care and daily responsibilities connected with documentation. One more serious barrier is caused by versatility of documentation systems that are used in the United States by different hospitals. It means that there may be significant discrepancies in the process of translation of the currently used documentation system into EMR.
Medical records must be accurate and precise. Moreover, the information should be documented timely and regularly. Furthermore, all supporting electronic files should be provided in accordance to the records. There are such types of information systems that record patients’ data as ambulatory, inpatient, specialty, and ancillary. The data from every type of recording system should be translated into EMR without losses of data, discrepancies or confusion.
EMR systems not only preserve the key functions of traditional documentation systems, such as facilitation of inert-provider communicational patterns, provision of evidence in case of necessity, and automation of health care decisions, but also enhance the whole process and augment reliability of documentation. In such way, a constructive influence on patient care is provided as far as well-structured data may be easily accessed by both authorized hospital personnel and other health care providers (Boonstra, Versluis & Vos, 2015). Furthermore, the scholars underline that hospital personnel need diversity of proper, accurate and timely data for diagnostics and subsequent treatment (Reid, Compton, Grossman & Fanjiang, 2005). To be more precise, they need
“The patient’s health record, the rapidly changing medical-evidence base, and provider orders guiding the process of patient care. In addition, they need information on patient preferences and values and important administrative information, such as the status and availability of supporting resources” (Reid, Compton, Grossman & Fanjiang, 2005).
Moreover, Reid, Compton, Grossman and Fanjiang (2005) highlight the ultimate significance of information for all levels of health care delivery system. It means that data is crucial for both patients and members of health care system. Hence, the significance of EMR is tremendous as far as it guarantees not only accuracy and speed of record, but also reliability and technological advancement.
Purpose Statement and Project Objectives
The purpose of the present project is to evaluate the level of efficiency and further perspective of teaching enhancement concerning EMR implementation. The teaching strategies will be tested empirically; subsequently, the results will be analyzed and evaluated. Moreover, the major focus should be placed on the competence of the personnel to teach newcomers timely and efficiently. Therefore, it is crucial on the given stage not only to conduct teaching of EMR implementation according to the chosen strategies, but also to provide authoritative evaluation. Such evaluation and recommendations are expected to result in an advanced version of the teaching strategy. Hence, it is vital for the given project to invite several leaders to observe EMR training and, consequently, to provide a feedback concerning its efficiency. The feedback will be based on the particular needs and present abilities of the hospital personnel, as well as on the actual influence of the outcomes on the patient care process. Moreover, it is important to take into consideration psychological aspects and peculiarities of new personnel.
Project objectives are as follows:
- to outline key stages of EMR training;
- to identify major challenges and disadvantages of the training process;
- to develop an advanced and constructive teaching strategy on the background of the present evidence-based project;
- to identify core competencies nursing personnel should acquire and consolidate during the course for proficient use of EMR;
- to construct a valid and potentially efficient system of EMR use.
Implications for Change in Practice
The main focus of the given project is the empirical efficiency provided by its implications. First of all, it is recommended to rely on evidence-based articles that can contribute not only to overall understanding of the process, but also to acquiring important skills and capacities necessary to master EMR personally. It will help to teach new nurses to use it in everyday practice. Moreover, background of reliable and credible sources will improve general medical command of nursing personnel. In addition, it is relevant to employ only recent studies in order to guarantee maximally innovative approach. EMR studies are comparatively new and have numerous challenges and gaps in both theoretical and especially practical scopes. As a result, an intensive research and empirical activity have been conducted in the recent course of time. Hence, there is an extensive scale of available sources. For example, the articles by Boonstra, Versluis and Vos (2014), Hasanain, Vallmuur and Clark (2014), Halas, Singer, Styles and Katz (2015). Nonetheless, the basis for development of potentially efficient EMR training strategy should be formed relying on classic approach to the issue of medical records and care delivery system. Reid, Compton, Grossman and Fangiang (2005) provide such credible background.
The formation of a background for proper and constructive comprehension of the issue of concern should be followed by the course of empirical activity. First, role training is a significant opportunity to introduce EMR activity to the newcomers and to demonstrate the innovative approach and new opportunities to those nurses who have had experience with electronic system of medical recording. The course of training will rely on the key aspects of EMR use, its potential and peculiarities. Nurses will have an introductory course in order to guarantee that every new member of nursing personnel has sufficient background knowledge and relevant understanding of EMR. The next stage of role training will be basic online training. Empirical activity will be trained in accordance with the everyday schedule of EMR use. Basic training will also be focused on cooperation in the course of working activity considering the fact that the final goal the personnel is targeted at is a high quality patient care and timely health care delivery. Therefore, the use of EMR should be positioned as an efficient aspect of medical performance aimed at enhancement of health care system that should be used collectively in order to result in maximal efficiency. Every nurse should realize responsibility for the quality of the work delivered by means of EMR and its impact on further professional activity of the whole medical unit. It will be also constructive to provide time for the nurses who are taught to explain what they understand from the course to each other. To be more precise, at the end of the training class the nursing personnel will share their achievements with each other. Consequently, each nurse will ask the audience two questions. In case the answer is not provided, or appears to be incomplete, or lacks accuracy and crucial details, the nurse will provide a relevant response and evaluate the feedback received from the audience. In such way, the nursing personnel will consolidate their knowledge and improve overall understanding of EMR functioning.
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The next implication for change in practice involves process-based training. It is especially important to provide fluent and effective shift from the previous recording method to EMR use. Therefore, the stage of process-based training alterations will focus on the paradigm shift the nurses should face. Personnel should also know not only the differences between the system that was used previously and EMR, but also comprehend the benefits and advantages electronic recording provides in the course of health care delivery. At the same time, it is vital to demonstrate that responsibility is also augmented, since EMR predetermines the course of treatment, and, as a result, efficiency of patient care.
Process-based training serves the function of fragmentation of the whole EMR use process in order to illustrate crucial details nurses should take into consideration. Moreover, the given stage will involve less control of the teaching professional group. Nurses will receive clear instructions after initial demonstration of a particular process. In case there is a misunderstanding or some members of nursing personnel fail to complete the task, their peers should assist. The leaders do not interfere until there is no solution for the task completion. Such approach will contribute to the enhancement of team work. Consequently, the nurses will be focused on the completion of the task and search for optimal solution. In its turn, such activity guarantees profound analysis of the core aspects of EMR use.
Halas, Singer, Styles and Katz (2015) highlight that use of EMR is a dynamic and complicated process. Therefore, it is important to address aspects of interface design and timely use. Nurses will become more proficient in using multiple screens and diverse options that EMR offers. As a rule, confusion with the aforementioned versatility of tools and screens results in irrelevant data or failure of medical record. One more important aspect that may cause problematic situations in EMR use is time. Complexity of EMR functions provokes either failures or requires much time in order to gain proper results. According to Halas, Singer, Styles and Katz (2015), “it is time to consider the EMR’s role within the academic setting and not simply expect that it will intuitively be used as a practice and teaching tool.“ Hence, the key aspects that will be addressed during the training are the following: communicational patterns between the colleagues, documentation and especially data retrieval, clinical reasoning and supervisory processes. The next stage may be taken only provided the nursing personnel consolidated the acquired knowledge and mastered diverse operations via EMR properly, timely and with 100% accuracy.
The next significant stage in the training process is a so-called mock training, or trial runs. This is the final and the most challenging activity for the nursing personnel. Nurses will be provided with several scenarios. The medical recording should be provided timely, accurately and completely. Moreover, the assessment will also depend on easy access to the data that has been recorded. The ultimate goal of the tutors at the given stage will be to evaluate overall retention and enhance the acquired competence of nurses if any problems or discrepancies are observed. Furthermore, mock training reveals the level of trust and team spirit the nursing personnel has developed during previous stages. Trust and collaboration is crucial for the personnel when change policy is introduced and implemented. According to Boonstra, Versluis and Vos (2014), “a strong culture with a history of collaboration, teamwork, and trust between different stakeholder groups minimizes resistance to change.” Hence the introduction of EMR is a significant contribution to enhancement of clinic personnel professional performance. The aspects of EMR use that should be trained and evaluated during the given stage are as follows: communicational patterns, collaboration with colleagues and timely delivery of data.
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The issue of the utmost significance in terms of EMR use is considered to be availability of the data recorder electronically. To be more precise, the nurses should demonstrate relevance of the records, absolute accuracy in providing details and possibility to use the data recorded by the colleagues. It is vital for the nurses to have sufficient experience with computers in order to acquire currently discussed skills. In order to improve this capacity, the sessions in the course of mock training will be conducted in the following way: the scenarios will be worked on and presented by the nursing personnel that takes training. Afterwards, the advanced users of EMR and nurses who are proficient in IT will assess the results and provide a feedback. This aspect is crucial, since nurses will receive practical recommendations based on their achievements and mistakes.
Finally, the sociotechnical approach should be addressed as it reveals the major values and priorities that should be taken into consideration in the process of EMR implementation. Technological aspect is an explicit side of EMR, whereas social relevance is an implicit one. According to Boonstra, Verskuis and Vos (2014), it is evident that implementation of EMR “is not just a technical project and that existing work practices will change due to the new system.” Furthermore, it is important to dwell on security, privacy and confidentiality of EMR. The aforementioned issues are considered to be one of the major barrier for EMR implementation in hospitals. Therefore, it is vital to demonstrate reliability of EMR in terms of security and privacy to the nursing personnel so they can deliver this information to patients in a detailed and proficient manner.
It is appropriate to identify the prevailing learning styles in terms of each stage of EMR training. Visual and tactical styles will be dominant during all of the aforementioned types of training and performance. Auditory learning style will dominate during the introductory session. Nonetheless, it is important to realize that learning styles should be united in order to provide maximally efficient result. One of the main reasons for it is that people can master particular knowledge or skill only when they understand it properly. Moreover, practicing, as well as teaching each other contribute to the level of overall comprehension. There will be specific groups that will be affected by the given training, namely, the age group of nurses over 45, since they lack competence with computers and are reluctant to changes, especially the complicated ones. Additional sessions should be organized for such members of nursing personnel in order to provide equal background and development in acquiring new knowledge and skills.
Finally, it is relevant to highlight the significance of assistance provided by advanced IT users for the purpose of efficient implementation of EMR use. In other words, in case different delivery or retrieval problems with EMR occur, nursing personnel will hardly be capable to solve them, since such solutions require more significant level of IT proficiency. Hence, groups of advanced IT specialists will be addressed in order to enhance the system and provide the conditions for further working activity of nurses. Problems with EMR may be of ultimate significance and urgency, and the data should be available any time nurses may need it. Therefore, the groups of such professionals will work with each unit in the hospital in order to provide maximal efficiency and timely provision of qualitative patient care. On the other hand, the nurses will be able to address advanced IT specialists in case of problems with EMR. Moreover, such groups will inform about innovations and adjustments concerning EMR use as soon as they emerge, and train nursing personnel in case it is necessary or a current shift fails to cope with this task.
Theoretical Framework, or Conceptual Model Guiding Evidence-Based Practice
Implementation of EMR in the clinic is a significant and constructive step in the course of nursing personnel proficiency and competence improvement. Simultaneously, it is a responsible decision that requires paradigm shift in routine working activity of the hospital employees. Therefore, it is crucial to comprehend the strategic change that accompanies EMR implementation. Pettigrew’s framework is helpful in the given context (Boonstra, Versluis & Vos, 2014). It is relevant to employ it in the present discussion as it refers to three key dimensions, namely, context, content and process (Boonstra, Versluis & Vos, 2014). Moreover, the given framework features a course of broad organizational change that is exactly what EMR implementation will initiate in the hospital.
First, it is relevant to start with organizational context. EMR introduction will affect two dimensions of organizational context, namely, internal and external ones. The core elements of the internal context of EMR implementation rely on “social, economic, political, and competitive environments in which an organization operates” (Boonstra, Versluis & Vos, 2014). Hence, EMR use should align with the aforementioned aspects and result in benefits for qualitative patient care.
The next dimension is internal context that “refers to the structure, culture, resources, capabilities, and politics of an organization” (Boonstra, Versluis & Vos, 2014). EMR use should not interfere with inner policies, basic values and priorities of the hospital, as well as it should not influence communication and cooperation between nurses in a negative way. There should be no discrimination in terms of age, social status, religion and gender provoked by the currently discussed innovation. Furthermore, EMR should augment overall collaboration and team work, but not initiate unjustified rivalry in case some nurses master EMR use and others fail to do it as a result of poor command within computer-related environment.
The scope of content “covers the specific areas of the transformation under examination” (Boonstra, Versluis & Vos, 2014). It means that the content includes EMR as a unity of hardware and software, as well as recording and retrieval processes and the aspects that relate to the aforementioned processes. In addition, working processes that refer to the dimension of content should be distinguished from the ones that belong to the dimension of process, namely, “the processes of change, made up of the plans, actions, reactions, and interactions of the stakeholders, rather than work processes in general” (Boonstra, Versluis & Vos, 2014). The given dimension features attributive, supplementary and organizational performance the personnel should adhere to while using EMR. Simultaneously, it is a crucial part of EMR use, since it provides a vivid demonstration of organizational change efficiency.
Boonstra, Versluis and Vos (0214) highlight that strategic change should be “an iterative, continuous, multilevel process. This highlights that the outcome of an organizational change will be determined by the context, content, and process of that change.” Such complex approach guarantees that development is fostered not only at the level of EMR use, but also on the scale of overall medical competency of each member of hospital personnel. Hence, the framework with three key dimensions embodies a conceptual model that will be referred to in the course of analysis of both primary and secondary data acquired during the given evidence-based project.
Evidence-Based Literature Review
The present empirical project relies on two dimensions of data that will be acquired for analysis. To be more precise, it will involve primary data collected during a survey activity, and secondary data acquired by means of evidence-based literature review. Credible, up-to-date and reliable sources will be used. Considering the fact that general characteristic features and potential of EMR have been already discussed, literature review will focus on peculiarities of electronic records implementation in contemporary clinic environment.
Implementation of EMR provokes diverse challenges and barriers to coherent and successful recording performance. This is the major problem for its implementation in prevailing majority of hospitals. Nonetheless, the study conducted by McGinn, Grenier, Duplantie, Shaw, Sicotte, Mathieu, Leduc, Legare and Gagnon (2011) underlines that it is a narrow and subjective vision. In other words, the scholars demonstrate by means of their study results that some aspects that may be considered a barrier for one nurse, may be regarded as a facilitator or even advantage by the other one (McGinn, et al., 2011). Consequently, the amount and importance of barriers prevailed the number of facilitators. Hence, EMR should be perceived as a complicated, challenging, but constructive process of nursing efficiency enhancement.
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It is vital to take into consideration the aforementioned barriers and facilitators as they are the predetermining factors that affect the course of EMR training and its consequent professional use. McGinn, et al. (2011) identify such underlying factors as “Design or technical concerns, privacy and security concerns, cost issues, lack of time and workload, motivation to use EHR, productivity, perceived ease of use, patient and health professional interaction, interoperability, familiarity with EHR.” Every aforementioned aspect of EMR training and use should be addressed properly, constructively and timely in order to provide the transformation from being a barrier to becoming a facilitator.
Study by Jaana, Ward and Bahensky (2012) reveals the tendencies of EMR implementation and the level of advanced use in the average hospitals. Only 10% demonstrated advancement in EMR regular practice, whereas 22% had not implemented electronic records in their professional performance, and even had no plans to introduce such strategic change (Jaana, Ward & Bahensky, 2012). One of the main factors that interferes with implementation of EMR is considered to be a complicated process that accompanies its introduction and initial stage of use. The course of health care becomes less efficient as the nursing personnel receives training and practice. Therefore, the perception of nurses and their preliminary preparation in terms of computer use and electronic entry of data should be the ultimate focus of study.
Ward, Vartak, Schwichtenberg and Wakefield (2011) evaluated influence of EMR introduction on such crucial aspects of medical performance as workflow and patient care. The findings demonstrate that “Perceptions were more positive in nurses who had previous experience with electronic health records and less positive in nurses with more years of work experience” (Ward, Vartak, Schwichtenberg & Wakefield, 2011, p. 502). Hence, the scholars emphasize that main barriers are connected with insufficient IT competence and reluctance to changes. It means that such approach in majority of hospitals that have decided to introduce EMR use as an innovative policy is irrelevant as far as the personnel should acquire new knowledge and special skills with appropriate background and preparedness. Moreover, Ward, Vartak, Schwichtenberg and Wakefield (2011) provide such recommendations focused on key criteria that should be taken into consideration in order to ensure consistent and constructive EMR introduction in the hospital as: “the importance of setting realistic expectations, assessing user perceptions throughout the implementation process, designing training to meet the needs of the end user, and adapting training and implementation processes to support nurses who have concerns” (p. 502). Furthermore, Abramson, McGinnis, Edwards, Maniccia, Moore and Kaushal (2012) underline the significance of state initiatives targeted to support hospitals and personnel in the course of EMR introduction. Funding policy and direct support are important factors for effective EMR use (Abramson, et al., 2012).
Cresswell, Worth and Sheikh (2012) also discuss the approach that should be used while implementing EMR in daily course of performance of nurses. It should not be imposed, but positioned as a potentially efficient process that forms a natural stage of nurses’ professional development (Cresswell, Worth & Sheikh, 2012). Furthermore, scholars analyze influence of EMR on particularly important aspects of nursing performance, such as communicational patterns with colleagues, hierarchy and collaboration. The nurses who acquired sufficient command on EMR use and comprehend main principles and core potential of electronic recording process admit that team work and communication improved due to EMR introduction (Cresswell, Worth & Sheikh, 2012). Furthermore, positive impact of proper EMR use covered long distances and personnel members who have never interacted with each other before (Cresswell, Worth & Sheikh, 2012). Nonetheless, the nurses that have been surveyed during the research performed by Cresswell, Worth and Sheikh (2012) also underlined that it took significant period of time, efforts, efficient guidance and collaborative work to achieve such results.
Gastaldi, Lettieri, Corso, and Masella (2012) focus on such significant issue as “how to improve performance by implementing a tailored strategy to balance knowledge exploration and knowledge exploitation through the development of an EMR” (p. 14). Every hospital should rely on the key findings of previously performed empirical research and at the same time develop a constructive individual approach in accordance to personnel and team peculiarities, challenges and expected problems. Simon, Keohane, Amato, Coffey, Cadet and Zimlichman (2013) made the following constructive conclusion: “Successful implementation hinged on the ability of clinical leaders to address and manage perceptions and the fear of change. Implementation proceeded smoothly when institutions identified and anticipated the consequences of the change” (p. 67). Hence, EMR implementation is positioned by the scholars as multidimensional process that requires professional approach, effective strategic plan and consistent training course.
The present evidence-based project will take place in Baptist Hospital. The survey will be developed for the nursing personnel of the given hospital. The preliminary work preparation will include study of the personnel performance that works at the hospital in the current course of time. Achievements, competencies, as well as disadvantages and irrelevant decisions that have been made during their practice will be considered. The surveys will be distributed to the personnel of inpatient and ER departments.
Project Description and Components
The survey that will assist in evaluation of EMR potential for the given hospital will be designed on Survey Monkey. The choice of Survey Monkey is predetermined by such reasons as: the given survey service is easily managed; it provides an opportunity to send e-mails to numerous participants of the survey course and deliver them instantly; moreover, Survey Monkey permits to extract the acquired results and transform the data into constructive graphs. Furthermore, surveys will consist of 18 questions, including both close-ended and open-ended questions. Such approach provides the researchers with accurate factual data that is obligatory for the development of EMR implementation strategy. In addition, attitudes and personal opinions of the surveyed nurses will be obtained that are necessary to provide maximal efficiency of EMR use by means of taking into consideration all the important and challenging aspects personnel may face. The open-ended questions are expected to contribute to in-depth insight of nurses’ comprehension of EMR significance, their basic needs that precede the course of training and potential requirements that should be met during EMR training course.
The participants will be chosen randomly from the hospital personnel database. The permission from the head of the hospital will be taken prior to the surveying activity. The overall quantity of participants will be 200. They will receive the letters introducing general idea of the present evidence-based project and asking for consent to respond. Participation in the given survey is voluntary. Therefore, the surveys, namely, links to them, will be sent only after confirmation of the willingness to partake. Confidentiality and anonymity will be guaranteed to the respondents. The results provided by Survey Monkey will be used for analysis and discussion of the main issues of concern identified by the present project.
Project Evaluation Plan
The course of evaluation is crucial in the given context as far as it reveals the level of efficiency and overall potential of the project outcomes.
First, it is necessary to discuss with the directors of the units the relevant time for taking the survey. The managers should permit period of five minutes for the personnel to respond to the survey questions. The units of nurses will complete the survey in turns. The next step will be extraction of the acquired data. Afterwards, the data will be forwarded to the team of Clinical Informatics for interpretation. The significance of the aforementioned team relies on further cooperation of its members with personnel at the hospital. Therefore, it will be constructive to start it at the stage of evaluation. The clinical personnel will receive education from Clinical informatics professionals during the course of EMR implementation. Moreover, advanced specialists in IT sphere will be attached to the regular units of nursing personnel. Their aim will be to assist the nurses in navigating and managing of EMR during working hours.
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The ultimate purpose of the given survey is to evaluate clinical personnel in order to determine percentage of nurses that may face difficulties in learning and navigation of EMR, as well as the percentage of nurses who have prior experience with EMR. Moreover, it will be crucial to detect if there are such nurses who reject the new system regardless of their previous experience and IT competency. IT professionals and super-users need to gain the aforementioned data in order to receive a general picture of preparedness of the nursing audience and to focus on those nurses who will need more time and effort to study how to use EMR. All the aforementioned measures are aimed at providing fluent and constructive course of EMR training and implementation in Baptist Hospital.
Assumptions and Limitations
The key limitation is based on prior experience of the nursing personnel in computer-related activities in general and in EMR use in particular. The nurses who belong to young generation and are technologically perceptive are expected to grasp the command on EMR navigation and daily use easily and effectively, whereas older generation and those nurses who lack correspondent experience will need additional classes in order to improve the given competency. It is also assumed that a serious challenge for EMR training course will be those nurses who have poor and irrelevant experience of EMR use, since they should be retrained. It is caused by the fact that it is more complicated in comparison with learning the program from the beginning. Furthermore, nurses in the age group 50+ may be reluctant to change policy in general.
The present evidence-based project focuses on the topical issue for the contemporary medicine in general and nursing practice in particular. It is expected to gain necessary knowledge for efficient EMR implementation at Baptist Hospital. This information is necessary in order to develop a particular strategic plan for change policy that will assist all the members of nursing personnel not only to acquire new knowledge and skills in EMR navigation, but also to implement them in practice and demonstrate constructive team work both with colleagues and Clinical Informatics group. It is recommended to conduct a survey after the introductory training course in order to detect key problems and challenges before practical part of the program. Moreover, it is recommended to align activity of nurses and IT team in the process of training in order to develop trust and contribute to further cooperation.
Analysis of Self as a Scholar
The given project is a vivid proof that nurses should be in a course of development constantly. Only in such way they will be able to to evolve professionally and become true specialists. Therefore, given project is a significant step in the course of enhancement both as a nurse and as a scholar.
Being a scholar is a responsible and challenging task. Hence, there are particular aspects that should be reconsidered and improved. It is recommended to acquire new knowledge and practice in order to improve scholarly competence. The process of enhancement should be regular and permanent. The scopes of practice and project development are justified and rely on credible and reliable studies. The sphere of leadership should be enhanced as there is an apparent lack of connection with the audience and confidence as a leader.