The modern societies have changed drastically over the past fifty years in regard on technology. The societies have become an information world where technology is almost everything as opposed to the past. Technology has changed and advanced a great deal presently compared to the earlier periods. Nowadays, it affects human life in different areas; for instance, it brings social change, educational change, agricultural change, and change in leisure activities among others.
Industrial Revolution and Technology
Technological change has brought about social changes in the modern societies. Due to the Industrial Revolution, many individuals relocated from their lands to find jobs in the packed metropolis factories (Klein, 2008). Moreover, Serfdoms, which in the past were eliminated, and the populace moved from the villages to metropolises. As a result, burly family ties, right to occupy land, and self-sufficiency were substituted with the tentative rental of land, reliance on trade, and deterioration of family units (Klein, 2008).
The Industrial Revolution has affected the economy by allowing goods and money to flourish making business to proliferate compared to the past. Consequently, the merchant class profits from the wealth generated from the factories. Furthermore, the family units are more susceptible to high divorce rates and soaring rates of teenage suicides presently. Due to Industrial Revolution, most of the societies are either mortgaged to banks or paying the high rental fee.
Trade and Technology
In the past, the majority of the businesses were done locally and counting done manually. Technology has quickly changed the way people trade since the business people nowadays use internets, calculators, telephone, mobile forms, and airplanes (Klein, 2008). In the past, carrying goods to the marketplaces were done by people themselves or by use of animals such as donkeys, camels, and even cows (Klein, 2008). Presently, the trade industry has improved a great deal due to technology changes because traders can use vehicles and airplanes to transport and supply goods to the consumers.
Starting a business in the past needed no registration since the technology was in its minimal form. On the other hand, when starting a business presently, registration is done in the local business registration offices, and a business name is applied using the computers with internets. In addition, with the birth of the internet, businesspersons can conduct international trade while they are in their countries without traveling all the way. This could not be done in the past as it forced the traders to travel all the way in order to take their goods and interact with the consumers.
Agriculture and Technology
Agricultural systems have changed and advanced throughout the past as technology also advances. Over 200 years ago, ninety percent of the world populace subsisted on farms and planted their personal food to consume (AS, 2012). Presently, approximately five percent of the population produces such food as vegetables, fruits, meat, and milk. Farmers nowadays use advancement in technology to produce extra food for an increasing world (AS, 2012). They use technologies like biotechnology, customized housing for animals, and motorized equipment, which permits improvement in agriculture. Better technology has permitted farmers to feed extra people and use less labor in the farms when compared to the past.
In the past, farmers used their own hands or horse drawn equipment to cultivate their lands; this required more people to work on the farms while the produce was small (AS, 2012). The workload was high and took a long time to be finished. The horses used were not fast, as they would get tired after a short time. Presently, most farmers use motorized equipment like tractors to help them with the fieldwork. Tractors are also larger and faster than horses and can labor for a longer time when needed (AS, 2012).
Presently, farmers use biotechnology in agriculture. This is the use of technology to increase crop and animal production (AS, 2012). Seed technology has changed from the past to present. In consequence of the advanced technology, crops are able to endure harsh weather circumstances, for example, flooding and drought. In the past, drought and floods ruined the entire harvest since the plants could not endure such conditions. But today, due to genetic engineering and biotechnology, crops are capable of withstanding harsh conditions (AS, 2012). Now, the farmers can grow a variety of crops in their farms since seeds are designed to withstand different weather conditions as opposed to the past.
Through technology, farms are growing in size due to increased efficiency. In the past, the cows were milked by hand, and that took a lot of time. Nowadays, owing to technology, the cows are milked with special machines, which save time (AS, 2012). Now, unlike the past, farmers can use pesticides, acaricides, and herbicides to protect their crops and animals from unwanted pests like insects and weeds.
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Education and Technology
Compared to the past, technology has estimably changed education. Teaching methods have advanced from ancient times to nowadays. In the past, science was taught through recitation method where learners memorized the machines without seeing them. But now, technology has led to the invention of laboratory, observation method, and fieldwork method with adequate laboratory facilities where science students can now observe the machines.
In the past, some subjects were not included in the syllabus; for example, Information Technology. But due to advancement in technology, these topics have been added in the syllabus today. With this knowledge, the students now learn how to use computers (Zelkowitz, 2006). Thanks to technology advancements, students in schools around the world can learn using the computers. In the past, the students had to attend classes in person since there were no computers or laptops. Presently, with the invention of e-learning, students are able to learn online which is easier compared to the past (Hutchby, 2001).
Transport and Technology
In the past, people used animals such as camels, donkeys, horses, and cattle to travel from one area to another. This has changed with the Technology Revolution. Today, technology has invented machines, which make travelling easier than before, as they are quick and save time. Moreover, advancement in technology has led to the development of vehicles and trains, which people can use to travel to far places (Klein, 2008). There are also motorcycles and bicycles, which help people to travel on land. Presently, there are airplanes, jets, rockets, and airstrips, which people use to travel on air unlike in the past.
In the past, people used boats, which were locally made to travel on water. These boats took a lot of time and needed a lot of energy to operate. But today, with the technology, many machines such as steamboats, ships, engine boats, and ferries have been invented (Klein, 2008). The invented machines now save time and energy and carry people as opposed to the earlier periods.
Communication and Technology
The types of medium people use to converse with one another have been advancing during the past years. The modes of communication have changed depending on the times, individual’s living situation, and advancement in technology (Klein, 2008). In the past, the types of communication technology devices have evolved from smoke signals and carrier pigeons to letters and telegrams.
Later, in the 1800s, there was the invention of telegraphs, which brought about generational change in communication. Telegraph was the first main landmark in the development of communication technology (Zelkowitz, 2006). Today, people use efficient means of communication: mobile phones, e-mails, telephones, radio, cable television, and internet, which are faster than the ones used in the earlier periods.
Nowadays, communication plays an important role in the public and private spheres as opposed to the past (Zelkowitz, 2006). Today, communication worldwide is at the tip of the finger and is factual. People use computers, Ipads, Blackberry playbooks, Tablets, and wireless internet to communicate instantly with the use of e-mail, text messaging, instant messaging, and video chats. Current technology makes communication continuous as it allows individuals to inarticulate themselves with a click of a button (Zelkowitz, 2006).
People in the past were not exposed to the kind of technology that enabled face-to-face communication as today (Zelkowitz, 2006). Nowadays, people are able to communicate face to face despite the distance. For instance, one can have face-to-face communication through the application of 3G calls, Skype, and webcam (Hutchby, 2001).
In ancient times, televisions were usually in optical screens, white and black images with few channels and with an antenna attached at the backs (Zelkowitz, 2006). But nowadays, there are varieties of televisions which appear in liquid crystal and plasma display. They have great sound systems and flat screens with clearer vision (Hutchby, 2001). The televisions also come in multitouch screens meaning we can control everything while watching.
In conclusion, our everyday tasks have changed in one way or another due to technological advancement, and they are quickly becoming the norm. Numerous technological innovations have occurred since the beginning of humanity and contributed to the modern ones. The technological changes from the past to present always relate to survival needs like shelter, defense, or food. The technology revolution from the past to now helps in many aspects of our lives such as the economy, education, and health (Hutchby, 2001). Technological changes have positively driven civilization and changed cultural systems as it shapes and reflects the system’s values.