The Concept of Creativity
The definition of creativity raises strong debates that, probably, will never have the unanimous answer. I feel that most fully it can be described as the process of human activity that creates a qualitatively new material and spiritual values that never existed before. However, one should not deceive himself/herself thinking that this concept focuses primarily on spirituality. The values of creativity are highly diverse and cover various spheres of the person, process and result.
Creativity represents the personal ability to create certain material based on the knowledge of the objective laws. Such new reality (in any form) satisfies both personal and public needs. In this context, the existence of audience is as important as the desires of the artist. Marcel Duchamp sees the spectator as the judge and critic, on the one hand, and the artist’s posterity, on the other. Creativity is understood as a combination of productive and reproductive activities. In this sense, the creation act is the synthesis of already known concepts and patterns and personal reflections of the artist. Such definition means that every person is an artist and a creator. In fact, the creation act can occur in different circumstances regardless of time, place and other background indicators; thus the personality of the artist is the only significant point. Henri Bergson was absolutely right stating that the whole human life is the creative process. However, the nature of each creative act is rather controversial.
Marcel Duchamp outlines the unconscious aspect of creativity. According to his words, the artist plays the role of the medium between ideas and spectators. Therefore, his/her desires, reflections, and considerations are unimportant for the final result. Moreover, the further destiny of this outcome completely depends on the audience that chooses which creative acts should remain in the history of art. However, I feel that such point of view is partly true. There must be a reason why the audience chooses one artist upon another while the artist is perceived as only the weak-willed conductor. The artistic individuality or, in other words, artistic consciousness makes the result of the creation act completely unique. Therefore, every artist should doubt the role of the medium. However, it does not mean that conscious aspect is more important than unintended expressions. For example, Sigmund Freud and other psychologists and neurologists outline the importance of the manifestations of unconscious intentions in the creative act. Therefore, one should consider the conscious and unconscious concepts equally when analyzing creativity; otherwise, the results will raise numerous questions and lose their credibility.
In his essay, Duchamp insists that the result of any creation act is the compromise between the intent of the artist and the way of manifestation. Such statement proves the inability to express the whole range of ideas that has the artist. Duchamp also implements the personal “art coefficient” that represents the connection between the unintended manifestations and intentions that the artist could not express. While this coefficient is extremely important for the self-development of every creator, I feel that there is a need for the consideration of public opinions. Therefore, some new indices can be designed. For example, the coefficient that shows the relation between the original intent of the artist and a number of spectators’ interpretations. While the artist cannot work with the unconscious aspect of creation, he/she may improve the artistic approach thereby receiving an opportunity to express the original intent more clearly.
The concept of creativity is the mix of productive and reproductive activities. Moreover, it depends on the personality rather than on the context. The creative act consists of two equal concepts: conscious and unconscious. Outlining the second one, Duchamp ignores the importance of meaningful ideas of the artist. Moreover, his “art coefficient” that connects unintended ideas and unexpressed concepts can be supplemented with other connections.