The major purpose of the given proposal is to provide efficient organizational learning mechanisms (OLMs) to show how they can help entities to transit employees from individual learning to organizational learning. After-Action Reviews (AAR) are among the leading aspects that create a psychologically safe environment, in which employees can contribute to the profitability and success of an organization by offering their proposals and voices. Engaging the employees into team projects and active discussion can involve them in the entire organizational mechanism.
Three major problems that have caused the challenges in promoting organizational learning and enriching the corporate culture include irregularity of normal coaching and peer assisting, insufficient communication, and improper information distribution among the staff.
Firstly, lack of coaching and peer assisting could become the obstacle on the way to sufficient individual learning and organizational culture development. The point is that organizational learning is composed of regular knowledge creation and distribution. Therefore, the task of trainers and coaches is to constantly motivate employees to gain new information and share their experiences with others.
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Secondly, insufficient communication reduces the access to knowledge and information. As a result, the learning activities significantly hinder the process of organizational promotion and development. The departments within an organization should work efficiently for improving the current situation and enhancing the corporate climate.
Finally, lack of information channels is understandable because of inappropriate shift scheduling. Thus, the employees in different shifts are unable to transfer information and share knowledge about potential gaps in management. The issue hinders organizational development.
The experiences show that the major OLM hindrances include external and online mechanisms. In fact, online communication differs significantly from the face-to-face communication, which implies richer context and greater degree of mutual understanding. As Crossan, Maurer, and White (2013) explain, “previously retained learning, for example in the form of a strategic goal at the organizational level, acts as a key replicator. Such a replicator exerts selection pressure on the variation that is created at a lower level, in this example on the behavior and routines at the group level” (p. 8). Therefore, the individual should provide essential content, which is associated with cognitive, behavioral, affective, and material issues. They are created by different cycles of variation and selection process during integration of organizational learning mechanism.
Project Goals and Methodology
After-Action Review (AAR) is among the most suitable organizational learning mechanisms, which contribute to efficient organizational training and transition from individual learning. The essence of the method is learning from experience and engaging into practical activities. As a proof, Reiter-Palmon, Kennel, Allen, and Jones (2015) have focused on the analysis of AAR from the viewpoint of organizational learning effectiveness. Specifically, the study emphases the application of specific forms of AAR in a post-fall huddle to learn more about major mistakes and reduce the failures and notable pitfalls. The findings have proved that the application of self-guided huddles could contribute to the information collection process, which is among the key mistakes in management. Additionally, the findings have revealed that AAR can also help the managers indicate errors, which could contribute to the decrease in coordination and task errors. Finally, the proportions of mistakes with less severe outcomes could be increased during the project time period. Hence, after-action reviews turn out to be effective in enhancing the identification of specific errors, generally improving future decision-making and organizational operations.
The major advantages of AAR is confined to the possibility of learning from experience, acquired skills to act in emergency situations, and facilitation of learning lesions regarding the functions and responsibilities of a personal. When it concerns experience enrichment and emergency plans, AAR is an effective tool to provide a strong ground for actions (Tami, et al., 2015). Specifically, AAR implies face-to-face discussion which can solve the problem of insufficient communication. The presence of professionals and counselors are also among the leading advantages of effective management and assessment of the group productivity.
The major disadvantages of AAR are revealed through lack of organization, increased control and pressure on the employees, and inability to focus on theory. The aforementioned challenges create conflicts. As the review of articles shows, AAR is heavily implied in medical sphere because it effectively solves with practical and empirical cases. AAR allows the users to focus on past experiences and real-world situations leading to the formation of new concepts and outcomes. However, excess pressure of online information can distort employees’ perceptions to confuse them with the real-life experiences. Besides, the attention to past experience can distract the personnel from the future achievements and possible shifts. As a result, the approach is not always effective unless a balance is presented. Finally, the lack of theoretical engagement can also lead to the deployment of false information with reliance on separate experiences, which are not always valid and applicable to the current situation. The dissonance could not introduce improvements to organizational learning initiatives.
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Productive learning is often hindered by absence of effective scheduling, which prevents employees from exchanging information and sharing knowledge. The task of the leader is to develop a new scheduling board to allow the employees reporting on the challenges and achievements, which could also be monitored by the workers in other shifts. As a result, coordination could be developed.
There two major talent strategies to be applied to prepare organization for sharing knowledge and exchanging information. They are mobility and constant readiness for changes (Collings, 2014). The first type of relationship between manager and an employee is confined to understanding how workers are ready to exchange knowledge and search for new information which can contribute to the enrichment of organizational culture. The second aspect is also important for improving the current organizational climate because it prepares employees for new challenges and problems and makes them adjust to new problems and solutions.
Project Risk Management
Two Resistance Risks to the Transition
The transition could encounter problems at professional and personal level. The first one introduces problems in terms of readiness of employees to sacrifice personal goals for the sake of the new responsibilities and duties. Personal aspects defines the willingness of employees to take new responsibilities and understand how they can strike the balance between personal and organizational goals.
Professional risks management includes the following:
- Arranging meeting with employees and provide feedback;
- Developing an interview to find out employees’ major concerns and fears;
- Structuring an individual training plan for the personnel to solve their problems.
Psychological risk management entails the following:
- Introducing counselor and analytics who will conduct an overall psychological evaluation of the current problems and concerns introduced by the manager.
- Understanding how the concerns could be tackled through After-Action Review to show that experience analysis is the key to dealing with the management and evaluation of organizational culture.
- Provide a detailed analysis of how organizational culture could be modified to meet individual concerns in terms of organizational learning transition.
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The development of practical activities based on case studies could be a helpful guide for employees to learn about new methods of OL. Individual assessment could be integrated into learning outcomes and adjusted to the needs of an organization. The workforce should get acquainted with company’s missions and goals to prepare for the challenges and introduce their opinions and outlooks on the current schemes OLM. The presentation of group projects can help trainers understand the specific consequences that could be reflected for further advancement. Additionally, the implementation of online survey could also become an additional helpful guide for employees, who feel difficulties with initiating face-to-face communication.
The transition from individual to organizational learning can be a challenge. The former is related to organizational culture, whereas the latter is more concerned with the practice of personal skills and abilities, which are not always compatible with organization’s goals. The necessity of introducing new organizational learning mechanisms such as After-Action Review is the key solution to help employees resort to their experiences and real-life situations in order to draw lessons. Therefore, it will be possible to build a collaborative team, in which communication and interaction is carried out face-to-face rather than by means of online technologies, which often distract from immediate problems and situations. The task of manager is to promote a new vision on the company’s activities and persuade the personnel that the transition is the key to personal improvement and self-determination.